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Third World Development Midterm


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What are the main points from article 1 of Annual Editions: More or Less Equal?
Does capitalism breed inequality among the rich and the poor? There are 3 areas of difficulty:
(1) Measuring what the poor consume.
(2) Valuing consumption between countries.
(3) Settling on a basis of comparison of the consuption between the countries.
What is the difference between "consumption poverty" and "income poverty" and which does the World Bank use as its measurement of poverty.
"consumption poverty" is the difference between consumption vs the amount of income one has while "income poverty" just measures that amount of income one receives. The World Bank measures "consumption poverty."
What are the main points from article 2 of Annual Editions: Getting There?
This deals with the Millenium Development Goals (MGDs) There are 3 needed reforms:
(1) improvingg the enviornment for private sector activity.
(2) enhancing the quality of governance and capacity in the public sector.
(3) Delivering more effective human development and more basic services for the poor.
What are the MDGs?
(1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - halve the number of people in extreme poverty conditions.
(2) Achieve universal primary education.
(3) Promote gender equality and empower women.
(4) Reduce child mortality.
(5) Improve maternal health.
(6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases.
(7) Ensure environmental sustainability.
(8) Develop a global partnership for development.
What are the main points of article 3 of Annual Editions: Institutions matter, but not for everything?
The barriers to economic development in the poorest countries are more complex than institutional shortcomings:
(1) Disease lowers returns on foreign investments and raises international transaction costs.
(2) Geography plays an important role in exporting and importing. These regions need outside help to create infrastructure.
What is donor coordination?
all the interested nations/states in donating. Could be invovled in crisis management, conflict resolution, etc.
What are the main points of Article 4 of Annual Editions: Development as Poison?
Development invovles the destruction of indigenious cultures and communities.
What are the main points of Article 5 of Annual Editions: Selling to the Poor?
Businesses should look at the poor as customers and consumers. Businesses haven't caught on becasue of the inexistence of infrastructure which requires intial investment. Also high illiteracy makes it difficult.
What are the main points of Article 6 of Annual Editions: Why people still starve?
the main problem occurs with institutions through looking at the example of Malawi and Africa. Donors are hypocrites: while opposing state subsidies elsewhere, wealthy nations hand out 1 billion a day to their own farmers.
What are the main points of Article 7 of Annual Editions: The Challenge of Worldwide migration?
the international community needs to establish more widely shared norms and agreed-upon procedures in order to manage better the flow of international migrants to the benefit of both the migrants themselves and the countries of origin, transit, and destination. Globalization is a primary force that is shaping the character and impact of migration - lower travel costs. Better opportunities also cause migration and the "Birth Rate Crisis" will make internatoinal migration an even more significant factor in globalization.
What are the two major promises the have been violated according to Isbister?
(1) Promise of prosperity from leaders of national independence movements.
(2) Promise of rich countries to guide the poor.
Poverty is the inability to do what?
poverty is the inability to make choices.
Define modernization theory
the worldview that most social scientists adopt in their attempt to understand the origins of pvoerty and underdevelopment and includes few hins that the ric are responsible for the plight of the poor.
Define dependency theory
asserts that economic growth in teh advanced capitalist countries created third world poverty in its wake.
Define the marxist belief
Marxists focus attention on the class structure in poor countries and the mechanisms that exist for exploitation, that is, for the apporpriation of surplus production by the dominant class.
define colonialism
a group of people subjected to power and authority of another country.
What was the treaty of Tordescilla?
Spain was given exclusive control of the Southern American and pacific colonies.
What were the religious reasons for colonialism?
colonialism has to be looked at in context of the crusade. The spreading of christianity was the "white man's burden."
What were the economic reasons for colonialism?
the imperial powers aim was to make profit. Colonies provided food, minerals, natural resources, and labor and in return Europe provided colonies with furnished products.
What were the geostrategic reasons for colonialism?
some colonies were obtained for political reasons, so that certain European nations could control trade routes, land, sea, etc.
What was the Treaty of Westphalia?
the treaty in which the state became sovereign to determine its religious affliation, not the divine right of kings. Loyalties were of nation, not of church
What are the main points of Article 20 of Annual Editions: The Market for Civil War?
civil war in developing nations is not necessarily the result of ethnic diversity, but when there is a majority ruling over a substantial minority. Civil war is self-perpetuating - it changes the balance of inerests. The level of poverty and economic growth affect the possibility of civil war more than ethnic factors. Natural resources are also important - especially those nations that are heavily dependent on them.
What are the main points of Article 21 of Annual Editions: Engaging Falling States?
terrorism is a tool, not an actor - the idea of "war on terrorism" creates idea of one common enemy. State failure should be 1st priority - if states are promoting good governance and no corruption, the trheat of regimes obtaining WMDs lessens. The problem occcurs when there is the absence of states with the legitmacy and authority to manage their affairs.
What are the main points of Article 22 of Annual Editions: A world Wide web of nuclear danger?
the ability of nations to obtain nuclear weapons is increasing. There are loopholes in the NPT which allow for states to gain access to nuclear technology.
What are the main points of Article 23 of Annual Editions: Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda is less an organizatino than an ideology. Taking out bin laden would do very little as he has limited ability to commission acts of terror. Militants seek to beat back what they perceive as an aggressive west that is "trying" to complete the crusades by humliating Islam.
What are the main points of Article 24 of Annual Editions: Backdraft
Many muslims see the war in Iraq as a war against Islam. The war in Iraq is not helping the fight against terrorists but is only creating more.
What are the main points of Article 25 of Annual Editions: Is the 2 state solution dead?
the idea of creating two states between palestine and israel is no longer used. there are 2 different proposals (1) a binational state - a state which represents both groups. (2) a single democratic entity based on 1 man, 1 vote.
what are the key points of modernization theory?
(1) countries of the world are autonomous in their development. They will succeed or fail as a result of the nation's choices.
(2) Underdevelopment is the fault of developing countries.
(3) Rich countries are those whose governemnts and culutral habits encouarge entreprenuerial skills, poor countries to have this encouragement.
(4) Privitization of the free market will lead to democracy. Economic liberalism leads to political liberalism.
(5) developing countries are "traditional."
What does Adam Smith maintain in his wealth of nations?
he encourages free trade practices and the globalization of markets in order for nations to gain wealth. He stresses comparative advantage and specialization of labor.
What does Rostow argue?
he argues that the richest countries today are the richest because they began the five stages of growth first.
(1)The traditional society: limited production functions, and a ceiling existed on the level of attainable output per head. This ceiling resulted from the gact that the potentialities which flow from modern science and technology were either not available or not regularly and systematically applied.
(2)the preconditions for take-off: ideas that are set in motion to discover an alternative to the traditional society. the building of an effective centralized natinoal state.
(3)the take-off: the forces making for economic progress, which yield limited bursts and enclaves of modern activity, expand and come to dominate society. New industries expand rapidly, yielding profits a large proportion of whcih are reinvested in new plants; and these new industries, in turn, stimulate, through their rapidly expanding requirement for factory workers, the services to support them, and for other manufactured goods.
(4)the drive to maturity: the make-up of the economy changes unceasingly as technique improves, new industries accelerate, older industries level off. The economy finds its place in the international economy. Orginial industries become more efficient.
(5)the age of high mass-consumption: the leading sectors shift towards durable consumers' goods and services.
What does David C. McClelland focus on?
he focuses on the internal factors of development - in the values and motives men have the lead them to exploit opportunities, to take advantage of favorable trade conditions. Freud teaches us that what people said was their motives was not a reliable basis for determining what those motives really were. McClelland's studies showed that people "high" in n Achievement tend to work harder at certain tasks; to learn faster; to do their best work when it counts for the record, and not when special incentives, like money, are introduced; to choose experts over friends as working partners,etc. Boys with high n Achievement usually came from families in which the mothers stressed early self-reliance and mastery. This fits with teh Protestant revolution - explains why the west is the richest.
What does Amy L. Sherman argue?
third world nations need to move away from socialist models and adopt free-market principles. The centrally planned economy fails due to the corruption of leaders and is inefficient because of the massive bureaucracy it creates. Debt relief should be used as a reward for those countries making the most progress in moving toward the market.
What are the main points of dependency theory?
(1)the third world has a lack of control. There is a dependent relationship between the North and the South. The rich are dependent upon the poor.
(2)the situation is unfair, there should be more of an equitable distribution of resources.
(3)it is the product of the third world itself - underdevelopment is a process, not just a failure to develop, it is an active process of impoverishment.
(4)the third world is not primitive/unchanged. They have been formed by the rich countries. Neo-colonial capitalist dominantion exists which makes the third world dependent on the industrial world.
(5)the industrializatino of the third world is too weak and incapable of leading to real improvement.
(6)unequal exchange occurs where the third world is seen giving up much more than it can get, in international trading markets.
What does Andre Gunder Frank believe?
the third world is not traditional, it has been shaped by first world colonialism in taking their resources. He explains the relationship between the 2 worlds in terms of metropolis's and satellites: the economic surplus which is generated by teh satellite countries is taken by the metropolis. His solution is greater autonomy for the third world and possible regional cooperation becasue progress is seen when the ties to the first world are weak.
What are Prebisch's arguments?
primary product producers suffer from an unequal exchange: while their resources remain cheap, the products that are developed from them rise in price. Latin America must then industrialize - however the industries become capital intensive rather than labor intensive which creates unemployment becasue there isn't a need for labor. It then hurts labor intensive local companies. New industries are most likely to be owned be first world elites meaning that profits are sent back to the first world rather than reinvested in local labor.
What does Dos Santos argue?
there are three periods of dependence:
(1)colonial dependence: europeans maintain trade monopoly over their colonies.
(2)financial-industrial dependence: the dominantion of big capital in the hegemonic centers and its expansion abroad through investment in teh production of raw materials. A productive structure grew up in the dependent countries devoted to the export of these products.
(3)post-war dependence: dependence based on MNCs which began to invest in industries geared to the internal market of underdeveloped countries.
Each of these forms of dependence corresponds to a situation whcih conditioned not only the international relations of these countries but also their internal structures.

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