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Colombian Encounter, Colonial Period


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Talk about Encomiendas
They were for life and transgenerational
Guman Puma de Ayala
Wrote letter to King telling him how his life used to be, and how it was now. 800 pictures. Injustice. "Oro comemos". Mestizo
Shortly after conquest, how many tonnes of gold were sent to Europe?
over 180 tonnes
What is Mita?
Labour system. Have to work 1 full year out of 7. Many never went home.
Was mining secondary to agriculture?
No, mining was more important.
Who brought the first sugar cane plants to the new world and when?
Colon brought them in 1493.
For whom was the sugar grown in Brasil produced?
European market
What was most important export from New World for Spain? For Brasil?
Silver; sugar
Where is Pernambuco?
NE Brasil - leading sugar producer.
Did the Native people have forced labour tradition?
When did the first African slaves arrive?
How many sugar mills were there by 1570?
60 mills
How many slaves arrived each year between 1570 and 1630?
Was the birth rate high for the African slaves?
No - because of poor nutrition, few women, and high infant mortality
What element of the African people's cultures survived?
religion, dance, music, diet, medicine.
What is "the cruelest commerce"?
What did Haciendas produce for the mining centres?
Where is "La cuidad de los reyes"?
Why did Haciendas produce wine?
for Iglesia
Where were there ranches?
North central Mexico, Venezuela, South Central Brasil, Argentina
Are there many natives in Patagonia?
No, it's hard to find them there.
Where were the 2 main centres?
Tenochitlan and Cuzco
How did the native peoples in Cuzco and Tenochitlan survive?
They adopted, adapted and transformed
-How many females came from the old world between 1509-1519?
10 %
Who was concerned with "racial purity"
Church and State
Who are Peninsulares?
Pure Europeans
children born of European parents in new world.
Indian and white
Black and white
When was the Treaty of Paris and what did it mean for their colonies in the New World?
1763 - France out
When was the American Revolution?
French Revolution dates?
Haitian Revolution?
What was the European attitude towards Natives?
-lazy - stupid - ignorant
When was the French occupation of Spain?
What did the French occupation of Spain mean for the French?
It meant that colonies were in self-rule
What were the three choices the colonies had?
remain as colonies
have autonomy w.o indep
become indep
Padre Miguel Hidalgo
Guanajuato - 600,000 ppl (natives and mestizos) in 1810 protested against unjust system
When was Miguel Hidalgo captured and killed??
Why should I never EVER forget Miguel Hidalgo's name?
Because that's the community I lived in in DF...!!
Mexico independence?
Central America
Gran Columbia indep?
Who was San Martin?
Argentinian soldier who decided to fight against Spaniards
Who was Simon Bolivar?
Had grand dream of uniting Gran Colombia - Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia
Chile indep date
Peru indep
What else did San Martin do?
Liberated Chile and declared indep of Peru
What did San Martin want for all of Latin America
When did Brasil declare independence from Portugal and was it as bloody?
1821 - no, not as bloody
Talk about Mexico's current economy
Heavily oriented towards EEUU (70%), imports 73%
How much of Mexico's exports go to Central America?
Was Central America home to an early civilization?
Nope - buffer zone
How do native ppl today continue to connect with the prehispanic past?
dress, diet
Is Mexico a homogeneous group of ppl?
No, it's a collage of ppls w/ diff ethnic ids
How do we see evidence of the colonial legacy?
the way cities are planned-
road systems - location of cities related to mining centres
What area in Mexico is still resisting today?
What side did the colonizers stick to in Central America: east or west?
The pacific side (west)
Who are the Miskitos?
ppl from eastern central america
How much of Mexico's pop collapsed after arrival of spanish?
Talk about Catholicism in Latin America
Native ppl forced to become catholics - still prayed to their gods- incorporated elements of their religion into it
Talk about Shamans in Latin America
Intermediary - respect him and his power - evidence that native ppls resisted and kept their own beliefs
Talk about the 2nd conquest
control of Latin American's economy - resistance leads to sanctions
What modified the face of Latin America?
In the 1900's - only 2 companies (both American) for bananas..
United Fruit and Standard Fruit
What happened to Standard Fruit?
taken over by United Fruit
What did United Fruit change its name to?
United Brands
What happened to prez in Honduras who spoke out against Banana plantations?
he was killed and new prez put in
On what side of central america are there coffee plantations?
Western, lowland side
Where and when was coffee first introduced in Latin America
Costa Rica in the 1840's
How much of El Salvador's export earnings are from coffee?
How much of Guatemala's export earnings are from coffee?
How much of Nicaragua's export earnings are from coffee?
How much of Honduras' export earnings are from coffee?
Does costa rica rely solely on coffee?
no, also has banana plantations
How do native ppl, *esp in mex * resist?
-clothing - diet
-religion -language
Why can't the native ppl accept the sale of land?
because "la tierra es toda" it is like your mother, and you can't sell your mother!
What agri. products grown in Mexico?
Beans, chiles, corn
What is Millpa?
Garden where you cultivate crops taken care of by women
Where are a lot of indig ppl in Mexico?
Oaxaca because very dry lands

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