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Colombian Encounters & Colonial Period Lecture, 18 enero


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List 4 main peoples who ruled in Spain from 1000 BCE to 218 BCE (VERY general)
Phoenicians 1000-800 BCE
Greeks 600 BCE
Carthaginians 300 BCE
Romans 218 BCE
-When did the reconquest occur?
- Who was it between?
- What kingdoms took safe?
- where did the early 8th century Muslims come from?
- 8th century
- Christians and Muslims
- Castilla, Leon, Aragon, y Portugal
- North Africa
-What happened in Spain in 1469?
-When did Isabel become Queen?
-When did Ferdinand become King?
-Who unified Spain and when?
- Isabel (Castilla y Leon) y Ferdinand (Aragon, Catalonia y Valencia)
- Carlos Primero, 1516.
-What were the main settlements in 15th Century Spain?
-What did the ppl do?
-How did they obtain luxury items such as ginger, cloves, cinnamon, pepper etc?
-Lisboa, Barcelona, Sevilla, y Valencia; 50,000 ppl/each
-Mostly farmers (wheat, wine, oranges); Castilla-sheep/cattle
-trade w/ silk road
1) Why was there a search for a new route East? (3 reasons)

2) Who was the 1st W. European to sail around Africa to India? When?

3) Conflict over Canary Islands?
1) -Italian & Muslim Intermediaries -Never a secure road-high taxes;
2) Portuguese Vasco de Gama in 1498.
1) Where did the Aztecs Rule/where did the Inkas?
2) Was there a diversity of cultures?
3) Which area was not heavily populated?
1) Aztecs - mesoamerica; Inkas- Andes
2) yes, enormous from to patagonia
3) Central America
-Where were largest #Indig. ppl?
-Where were ppl hunter/gatherers
-what crops cultivated in C.A, and S.A.
-What other activities did ppl engage in?
-Mesoamerica and Andes
- beans, corn; manioc, sweet potato, potatoes, peanuts
-pastoralism, trade (obsidian)
-currency was cocoa.
-When did Colon come to Am?
-where did he say he was?
-and when he went to Cuba?
-How long did they explore in all directions?
-October 12, 1492
- India
-thought was in Japan...
- 2 decades
-Who are Los Tainos?
-what was their staple food?
-Main language family of Amazon?
-what did Colon name the area?
-Arawak sp. ppl from Amazon
-"the Indies"
-When was the 2nd voyage?
-how many men came?
-What did they bring to Hispaniola?
- where did Colon go?
-domestic animals, seeds, tools
-Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Honduras, Venezuela
-Which Italian is America named after?
-Amerigo Vespucci
-He went around continent; his reports HUGE
-Who was the Tordesillas Treaty between and when?
- Where was Colonial capital?
-Who was Fransisco de Bombadilla? Nicolas De Ovando?
-Portugal y Spain, 1493, giving Portugal Brasil basically...
-New Governor in 1500; succeeded Bombadilla.
What things happened during 1st Genocide?
-Natives slaves
-European diseases: small pox, measles
-most, if not all Tainos perished after 2 decades
-Who conquered Tenochitlan and when? Ruler of Aztecas?
-Who conquered Cuzco/the Inkas and when?
-Cortes, 1519; Moctezuma
-Pizarro, 1532
- En el nombre de Dios y ORO
-What does Hidalgo mean?
-where is Extramadura?
-Who did Aztecs think Cortes was?
-Who joined Spaniards to fight Aztecs? Why?
-What happened before Cortes captured Moctezuma?
-Hijo de algo (pobre, sin padre)
-possibly Quetzacoatl.
-Tlaxcalans; they were a symbol of colonization...
-In cholula killed e/o. News reached Moctezuma.
-Who did Pizarro learn from?
-What happend to Wayna Kapaq that lead to civil war?
-Who was the son of his "official" wife? Other son?
-Who was named King by Inkan council?
-What happened to him?
-died suddenly w/o naming successor.
-Waskar; Atawallpa
-Pizarro arrived, Waskar captured and killed.
-What is Cajamarca?
-When Atawallpa captured, why didn't Pizarro kill him immediately?
-How did Atawallpa negociate his freedom?
-Where was Pizarro killed?
-place where the brothers fought.
-he learned not to from Cortes b/c it paralysed state.
-filled a room completely w/ gold and silver
-Who 'discovered' Brazil? Why?
-when was official landing?
-did Brasil have gold?
-Portuguese Pedro de Alvarez; 1500; Traveling to India, made a mistake, claimed land.
-no, but they had dyewood.
What happened in Brasil in 1532?
-Sao Vicente, 1st perm. settlement near Rio de Janairo
How many settlements was Brasilian coast divided into?
15 captancies
Who were Donatarios?(Encomenderos)
- proprietors who were granted captancies.
What did the Donatarios do?
-recruit colonists
-forced natives into slavery
-land grants to friends
-founded cities/admin justice
- collect taxes
-control trade
What is Sao Paulo linked to?
-sugar industry
In the North, Pernambuco switched from Dyewood to this...
The population was approx. 25 million - how many were there in 1650?
-1.5 million
When was Lima named the new capital?
Where was there resistance?
Yes in maya lowlands to the Andes
-small revolts elsewhere
-Civil wars in Peru
How many spanish vice-royalties?
Two - one in Lima, the other in DF (New Spain)
Bartolome de las Casas
Encomendero de Hispaniola
returned to Spain to become priest; returned in 1510; * renounced all his encomiendas y criticized exploitation of natives; ordered to return to Spain, resigned as Bishop. Continued to defend Native Rights.
How did Europeans view Natives?
as inferior beings, naturally slaves, savages - under Satan's control...only recourse to become a Christian

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