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U of I - History 141 Final ID Flash Cards


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Martin Luther
-Greatest Protestant reformer when he nailed his 95 Thesis to the door of his Catholic church in Germany (1517)
-became an Augustinian Hermit
-believed in "Fatih Alone" and "Scripture Alone" as principles of the Protestant religion
-Crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800 c.e. by Pope Leo III
-Gave the Church the upper hand in his rule
-King of the Franks; inherited his throne from his father Pippin
-presided over the Carolingian Renaissance
-died in 814 c.e.
-was said to be as great as Augustus
Ignatius Loyola
-Beginner of the Jesuit order "Soldiers of Christ"
-Wrote the Spiritual Excersises to Good fatih; reestablished Church rules and Traditions
-Lived during the time of the Counter Reformation of the Catholic Church
-Took place during the rule of Pope Urban II
-Was an attempt to raise the statutes of the Holy Church and defeat the
"evils" in Europe
-Initiated Christians to be "soldiers of Christ"
-Many wars between the Christians and the Barbarians (Arabs)
-1095 is the date that the First Crusade was preached by Pope Urban II
Feudalism (Fealty and Homage)
-Began in 1050 c.e.
-Was a new form of lordship based on property (fiefs)
-Lords relied on vassals to work their land and pay homage to them
Dictatus Papae
-Issued by Gregory Vii in 1075 c.e.
-reassured that the Catholic Church is founded by God
-The Roman Pope alone can be called universal
-The Pope has the power to reinstate Bishops, make or depose of Kings, sentence and retract sentences from law offenders, and can not be judged by anyone
-Stated that anyone not at peace with the church must be excommunicated
-concentration of the family's resources in hands of eldest son
-from the word horseman or knight
-means paying homage to a woman
-seen in an episode from Song of Roland
Frederick Barbarossa
-Wrote to Pope Hadrian in 1157 about the separation of church and state
-He was the King of Germany and the Holy Roman Emperor
-He didn't like the Pope because he had more power than Barbarossa did
John of Salisbury
-Bishop of Chartres (1159 c.e.)
-He described the ideal Prince : law, justice, and liberty
-He said a prince is a servant, not a tyrant and not above the law
Boniface VIII
-Pope of Rome in 1294
-Descendent of Peter
-Says there is one God and one beginning
-Mentions a Shepherd --> Peter
-Says temporal authority = state
Spiritual authority = church
and that they should work together but the church should be higher than state because all power is from God
-He believed in Institutions
Francis of Assisi
-Founder of the Franciscan Order - based on poverty
-monks were simplistic, educated, ascetic, chaste, and prayerful
-In 1204 he had the idea that God is not concerned with fighting or authority
Thomas Aquinas
-Starter of the Dominican Order
-Greatest theologian
-Proved God's existence through reason = logic and the observed
-reinforced church authority
Roger Bacon
-Told of the principles of experimental science = reason and experience (not faith)
-Wrote the Life of Charlemagne, modeling his life after the life of Augustus
-He was a close associate to Charlemagne and later to his son Louis the Pious
Anna Comnena
-Highly educated and ambitious daughter of Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnena
-She wanted to become empress but never got the chance because of her younger brother
-After being in two plots of murder, she was exiled to a monastary where she spent the last years of her life
-She wrote about her father's diplomaticc decisions and actions
Usama Ibn Munqidh
-Muslim warrior, politician, and author
-He wrote An Arab Opinion of the Crusaders
Marie De France
-Earliest female French poet
-Lived during the second half of the twelfth century
-She is know for her Lais= brief poems ; one of them being Guigemar
Geoffrey of Monmouth
-Wrote about British Kings - esp about King Arthur
-He became Bishop-elect of St. Asaph
King Arthur
-Monarch in England before the twelfth century
-made way for the later monarchs or England
Magna Carta
-The Great Charter made by King John of England because of pressure from his barons
-It limits and checks the power of Kings --> civil rights
-Written during the same year as the Fourth Lateran Council
-beginning of all governmental constitutions
Fourth Lateran Council
-Decided that the power of the papacy is the highest
-Centered on control and centralization of the church
-It was a crack down on heretics of the church
-Enforced "no marriage" for priests
Black Death - (Bubonic Plague)
-1349-1353 c.e.
-Spread across Europe, Egypt, and North Africa through trade routes
-A disatrous plague killing much of the population of Europe
-It shook up the social order in the way that kings had just as likely a chance of dying from the plague as the poor
-Renaissance writer who wrote the Decameron (satire)
-he described the Black Death as very gruesome - told of how people abandoned each other - even their own families
-told of the confusion in traditional roles- men were doing women's jobs
Henry Knighton
-Augustinian canon and historian
-Wrote the Chronicle
-Gave a description of the black plague and its effects on the economy, social structure and politics
-logistics = wages +/-
-Peasants Revolt of 1381
William Langland
-Wrote Piers Plowman
-Social commentary - said there should be social equality but he spoke down on rich people
-It paints a picture of a peasant's life
-He says the rich cannot buy their way into Heaven - indulgences were being sold at the time
Christine De Pizan
-One of the first Feminist writers of European history
-very well educated
-She points out men's flaws and compares the gender differences
Margery Kempe
-Became one of England's great mystics - she was celebit, ascetic, and she saw visions
-Wrote a Chaste Life
-She became chaste after having fourteen children
-she made God the most important part of her life - she changed the social structure in her family by switching roles with her husband and making him become chaste with her
-she was illiterate
Hundred Years War
-1337-1453 c.e.
-War between England and France
-At the beginning and middle, England took over much land from France, but by the end, France takes back all of their land
-They took time off during the Black Plague
-Concept of rebirth of values, classical learning, and ideas
-Man was seen as the measure of all things
-Major artisans of the time were Davinci and Raphael Sanzio
-14th Century -15th Century: printing press began
-Fall of Constantine to the Ottoman Turks
Leonardo DaVinci
-Renaissance Man - studied nature, human phisiology and was open minded and observative
-Said painting should be mixed with science, phisiology
-He described universal qualities
Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola
-wrote the "Dignity of Man"
-He was a child prodigy
-The church thought of him as a heretic
-he gave images of God and man - chameleon - free will/ controlled destiny
-man = the center of the universe
-He believed in high standards in men
Niccolo Machiavelli
-Famous Renaissance Writer - wrote "How I Wrote The Prince"
-contraversial - studied social sciences and politics
-He was tied to the Medici family
-He wrote a letter of his time in exile to the Medici's to get their assistance and get out of exile
Hildegard of Bingen
-1098-1179 c.e.
-Had a vision of the creation
-She was a nun and painted her vision
Galileo Galilei
-Scientist and astronomer - relying upon math
-He was arrested by the Inquisition for his Copernican views
-He supposedly violated the Bible by saying the Earth rotated around the sun
King Henry VIII
-King of England in the 15th Century
-He excommunicates himself from the church because they would not let him divorce his wife Queen Catherine of Aragon
-He starts the Protestant Church of England and forces the residents of England to convert from Christianity
-He later married 6 other women
Babylonian Captivity
-Papacy is moved to Avinon, France and is owned by the French King
-Pope Phillip III was being held hostage by the King of France
-17th Century
-Ushering in the modern period with rational thought
-it was a time to put aside the Middle Ages
Protestant Reformation
-justification by faith instead of the sacraments
-consubstantiation vs. transubstantiation
-witness of ritual vs. performance of miracles
-"priesthood of all believers" vs. priestly caste
Battle of Agincourt
-Took part during the Hundred Years War - 1415
-The English were outnumbered by the French in the farmlands of N.E. France
-Henry of England commanded a force of 5000 archers and 1000 men-at-arms while the French army had 25000 men
-The English won against incredible odds
The Globe Theatre
-The first ever wooden amphitheatre
-Designed by William Shakespear in the 1600's
-Wrote "Comparing the Old world and the New"
-trained as a lawyer
-He was sad because he witnessed the death of a friend
-He was a counselor to Parliament of Bordeaux
-Wrote French prose
-He drew connections between Native Americans and Europeans - said they were similar and equal
-He talked about how Alexander united his conquered nations- said conquerors should not take advantage of the new people
Thomas Hobbes
-Wrote the "State of Nature"
-English philosopher at Oxford
-lived through the civil war
-Wrote about forms and rights of government - his book was burned
-equality of man: mind and body help balance each other out
-Men: compete, safety, and glory
-In war time nothing is unjust - it disrupts daily life and developements
-Nature: state of war
Rene Descartes
-Wrote "A Method for Thinking Clearly and Distinctly"
-Father of Modern philosphy
-Studied humanities and law
-View of others: there is an overall equality in humans
-logic: investigated before looking into things, subdivide problems, simple - complex in thoughts
-no certain of anything
-his view of others breaks down heirarchies
Elizabeth I
-Second daughter of Henry VIII - reigned for almost 50 years
-Had great propaganda - described herself as a woman but also masculine in her role as king of England
Christopher Columbus
-Discovered the New World in 1492
-He sailed to "the Indies" with the patronage of Spain
Charles VIII
-1494 c.e.
-Holy Roman Emperor who invaded Italy and ousts the Medicis from power in Florence
Thirty Years War
-Religious and political dispute in Germany which led to an international conflict involving Spain, France, Sweden, and England
-It wreaked economic and social havoc in Germany and decimated its population
-As a result, all of Europe suffered
Gutenberg and the Printing Press
-In 1453 Johann Gutenberg printed a 42 - line Bible in Mainz
-It led to the spread of Christianity in the Bible and it sparked a growth in literacy and the desire of learning in the way that printing was faster and more popular
Diet of Worms
-The Parliament in the town of Worms which assembled to give a hearing to Martin Luther
-The Parliament consisted of Charles V and an assembly of rich people
-The Hearing decided that Luther should not be killed
-Roman, Spanish, and Universal Roman Inquisitions
-Times of religious persecution by a Catholic King

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