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Modern European Women's History Test 2


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Sigmund Freud and his critics
*Cite History of Ideas on women
*Women was castrated man.
*Male- Active, Female-passive
*Girls hold mother responsible for lack of penis
*The discovery that she is castrated is a turning-point in a girl’s growth.
-Three possible lines of development
---sexual inhibition or neurosis
---change of character in the sense of masculinity complex
---normal feminity
*The feminine situation is only establishedif the wish for a penis is replaced for one for a baby, if that is, a baby takes the place of a penis in accordance with an ancient symbolic equivalence
*****His Critics*****
Karen Horney
*“First, it is pointed out that little girls often express the wish to have a penis or the hope that it will still grow. There is no reason, however, to think that this wish is any more significant than their equally frequent wish to have a breast.
*“Further evidence may easily be found, however, in simultaneous complaints about feminine functions (such as menstruation) or frigidity, or in complaints about a brother having been preferred, or in a tendency to point out certain advantages of man’s social position or in dream symbols.”
*Helene Deutsch contends that what woman ultimately wants in intercourse is to be raped and violated; what she wants in mental life is to be humiliated; menstruation is significant to the woman because it feeds masochistic fantasies; childbirth represents the climax of masochistic satisfaction.”
The Bourgeois Family
Cite Freud and textbook
*Freud studied this
*closest examples to percieved seperate spheres
*lived different lives in different spheres so they had different perceptions of the world
*production moves outside the household
*TEXT:occupations in which the married couple was still regarded as the unit of production and wife was still regarded as an occupational label were found only at the bottom of the social scale
*how men and women were different
*ideal family peaked in 1900s
*started-family economy->family wage economy->Industrialization removed women, placed them in private sphere
*WWI started decline of bourgeois family
*women then created own world to fill up space, they were stuck in the past (monarchy-charity)
*industrial manufacturing terminated home business separates sexes
Alexandra Kollontai and the Russian Revolution
*most notable figure of russian revolution
*had to fight on many fronts when she tried to combine advocacy of women's rights with socialism
*fought against feminist competitors and indifference in her own party and against conservative society
*first a menshevik later a bolshevik
*generals daughter
*came to feminist consciousness through a personal conflict of work and family
*opposed feminists as bourgeois
*preached that women workers should rally to the proletarian banner
*knew that female proletarians had special problems that marxist programs did not sufficiently address and that they need self-awareness as workers and as women
*began Proletarian Women's Movement
--she and few associates talk marxism and attempted to show women that their main enemy was the bourgeoisie--not men
**During revolution
-along with Bolshevik organizers, fashioned a network of agitation that was effectibe in spite of tactical squabbles and communication problems
-worked with Zhenotdel to transform new revolutionary laws into reality thru education, mobilization, and social work
******FROM LECTURE*************
-born into entitled russian family
-married young engineer
-initially not allowed to go to school
-parents got a tutor, recieved great education
-studied in Zurich and London
-had son then seperated and raised child along
-activist for socialist movement in long
-tried to ween women away from bourgeois feminist movement
-supported lenin
-1st woman embassador to un
-member of parliament after revolution
what has revolution done for women
-communists made efforts to improve women's condition
-first regime to have equal rights on all froms
-equal status in marriage
-legalized abortion
-access to birth control
-prostitution illegal
-women joined together w/men as producers in public sphere
Radclyffe Halle's Well of Loneliness
*shockingling candid for its time
*very first to condemn homophobic society for its unfair treatment of gays and lesbians
*banned outright in 1928
--sexuality (homosexuality:particular historical movement)
--rold of women in war
--social acceptance of difference
--association b/t physical features and gender/sexual orientation
--women's identity w/andw/o men
--generational differences- mother/daughter father/daughter
--lack of communication and information
------not uncommon for urban bourgeoise household to inform only no sex until marriage
--educational opportunities
class is huge difference-product of bourgeoise not rural or peasant, the expectation is to be like bourgeoisie mother
*19th century seris of breakdown, concept of seperate spheres
--maleness and femaleness was comm breakdown of spheres, no common language-what we can and can't say, silence info, don't talk it goes away
-assertion of female sexuality and the new woman
-assertions of rights (freud)
-contrary to bourgeoise assexual female, everyone is sexual being
assumptions which underpin situation
---broad shoulders, sporty, narrow hips, angular, lanky, large body
--mannish woman, one that doesn't fit
--born inverted, third sex
--nature vs nurture? influence of opp. parent, dad wanted a boy
--mother/daughter special relationship-reflect their mothers, special empathy with eachother
--son/mother-separated can't fully access identity of son b/c of gender difference
--father daughter- diff b/c had no son
--science of the day- people born gay
--book hints that dad may have encouraged daughters gayness
timeless struggle to be accepted
polite society-status norms
The European Welfare State
*Most important legacy of WWII
*women participated in the push for better healthcare, reproductive rights, family policy, paid labor force on equal terms with men, legisltave assembly
*universal citizenship rights often fell short for women
*welfare state won important victories in equality and difference
*rights to certain minimum standards of life
*leads to arrival of social citizenship
Women's bodies as objects of public debate and regulation
reproductive laws
labor laws
women's pay
napoleonic code-consent to marriage and divorce
public sphere politics protecting privat interests
lesbians thrown in jail
-abortion done secretively
When contraception failed, as it regularly did, women turned to abortion. Like contraceptive information, advice on abortion was passed along among women, often from mother to daughter, or between friends, neighbors, and co-workers⬦Midwives frequently performed abortions for working class women
-malthusian league concerned with overpopulation and not women's right s to control their body
Gender Race and imperialism
-women participated also in politics in the empires acquired by their own nations
-played ambiguous roles as members of a sex considered to be inferior within a race that considered itself to be superior, contradictory results brought ambivalent results
-advanced interests of the colonizes by maintaining a social distance between the Europeans and the colonized
-women sometimes identified with the oppressed and sought to ameliorate some of imperialism's worst effects.
-women traveling colonies gained opportunities lacking at homme and played a central rol in shaping the social relations of imperialism
-as missionaries they modeled what europeans believed to be appropriate gender roles for indigenous women.
-thru their writings, they helped construct an image of, and rationale for, empire
-as ethnographers and anthropologists, they provided knowledge of indigenous peoples necessary for their more effective administration
-as reformers, they intervened in practices on behalf of local women and at times used this maternalistic role as spokeswomen to legitimate their own claims back home for political rights
The new woman
family consumer economy
I dunno
World war I
as discussed in class
millions died
entire generation of young men suffered
women of britain said go
why do men go off to war?
--women are watching
women were excluded from warfare
**war defeminized women
Describe history of public and private spheres in europe from late 19th century to the welfare state.

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