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SS Chapter 3 2


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a group of seminomadic people who came from the steppes
dry grasslands that streched north of the caucaus
caucus mountains
mountains between the black and caspian seas
indo-europeans job
primarlily pastoral people-herded cattle, sheep, and goats
how can historians tell where different indo-european tribes settled
by the languages they spoke
movements of a people from one region to another
what group migrated for an unknown reason?
what are some reasont the indo-europeans might have migrated from their homelands in the steppes?
1. the lands where their animals grazed might have dried up
2. tried to escape from invaders or disease
3. population might have grown too large to feed
group of indo-european speakers
a huge peninsula in modern-day turkey that juts out into the black and mediterranean seas
-high rocky plateau rich in timber and agruculture
where did the hittites live?
what was anatolia also called?
Asia Minor
capital of anatolia
what kind of government did the kitties havve and what did it become?
-city states
-came to form an empire
what did the hittite empire dominate?
south west asia:
hitties struggle w/ egypt over control of northern syria
neither were able to win so they signed a pece treaty agreeing to help each other fight invaders
language of the babylonians the hitties conquered that they used for international use when not using their own indo-european language
where did the hitties borrow ideas from?
hitties war technology
superior chariots and iron weapons
indo-european people who crossed over the northwest mountain passes into the indus river valley of india
sacred literature of the aryans that tells about their life
-four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals
-at first was passed down orally
rig veda
most important part of the vedas
contains 1028 hyms devoted to aryan gods
what does aryans mean in aryan language
the nobles
waht did aryans call the indians and why
dasas, meaning dark
did aryans have a writing system?
3 social classes of the aryans?
1. brahmins 2. warriors 3. peasants or traders
what group eventually formed as a 4th class?
non-aryan laborers or craftsmen (shudras)
skin color aryans depended on how they reated the fourth group
what were the social classes of the aryans called
what did caste determine?
who you could marry, the work you did, with who you could eat
ppl who were not of ritual purity
a major kingdom of the aryans that emerged from fighting for power
it took over the surrounding kingdoms
-reflects the struggles that took place in indian as the aryans moved south
-poem of the great wear between two sets of cousins, pandavas and kauraas
lonngest poem in the world
when the forms of religion of the aryans and nonaryan formed together
who founded hinduism
no one
hindu writing of teachers comments on the hidden meaning of the veda hymns
written as a dilalgoue between student and teacher
hinduism-a state of perfect understanding of all things when you understand the relationship between atman and brahman
rebirth-when an individual soul or spirit is born again and again until moksha is achieved
a soul's good or bad deeds
how does karma influence reincarnation?
it follows from one reincarnation to another, determining a caste one if born into, health, wealth, etc.
the world soul
Brahmans personalilites of 3 gods
1. brahma (creator)
2. Vishnu (protector)
3. Shiva (the destroyer)
3 different paths of acheiving hindu moksha
1. right thinking
2. right action
3. religious devotion
who founded jainism?
what do jains believe about the universe?
that everything in the universe has a soul and so should not be harmed..doctrine of nonviolence
what were the jains occupation and why?
trade and commerce..occupation that would not harm any creature
why dont jains send out missionaries
they preach tolerance of all religions
siddhartha gautama
founder of buddhism
bio of siddhartha
-father kept him at home bc a prophecy said that hed become a great ruler
-married and had a son
-left when he was 29
-saw suffering and wanted to stop it
-searched the forest for 6 years seeking enlightment
-meditates under a tree for 49 days and says he understands the cause of suffering in the world
what siddhartha was known as when he founded enlightment
means "enlightened one"
Four Noble Truths
four main ideas that the buddha had understood in his enlightment
1. everything in life is suffering and sorrow
2. the cause of all suffering is peoples selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of the world
3. the way to end suffering is to end desires
4. the way to end desires is to follow the eightfold path
eightfold parth
the middle way between desires and self-denial:
right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration
the buddha's word for the release from selfishness and pain
what parts of hinduism did the buddha accept and what did he not accept?
accepted reincarnation, that the world is created and destroyed over and over
did not accept caste system or gods
in what important way are hinduism and buddhism similar?
final goals: moksha (Hindus) and nirvana (buddhism)
-chain of reincarnation
buddhist religious order..first 5 monks who heard the first sermon
eventually spread to the entire religious community instead of just monks and nuns
3 jewels of buddhism
nuddha, the law, the community
buddhism jobs
how did buddhism spread?
missionaries and traders
power seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern mediterranean
large island on the southern edge of teh aegean sea where the minoans lived
what kind of art did minoans have?
pottery, swords, figures, and vessels of precious metal
minoan capital city named after king minos
king minos
had the maz and the half human half bull monster minotaur
what told a lot oabout the minoans?
wall paintings
what does artwork depict about minoan women?
they held a high rank than in most neighboring cultures
what did minoans sacrifice to their gods?
buls, animals, and sometimes maybe humans
how did the minoan civilization end?
maybe: a) natural disaster
b) overpopulation
c) overrun by invaders
why could it have been a natural disaster?
they received many others before, possibly earthquakes and then volcani eruptions
most powerful traders along the mediterranean after crete's decline
phoenician government
wealthy city-states
where was phoenicia
area now known as lebanon
what were the phoenicians good at?
remarkable hipbuilders and seafarers
what were the phoenicians the first to do?
vneture beyyond the strait of gibraltar and maybe even sailing around africa
what were the phoenicians known for in trade?
their purple dye
what waas phoenicia great legacy?
their phoenetic alphabet..writing system
how was phoenician trade upset?
they were conquered by assyrians and then came under control of the babylonians and then the persian empire of king cyrus I
how did indian traders use nature to travel?
used other monsoon winds
where the pheonicians and hebrews lived
area of palestine that was the ancient home of the hebrews
first five books of the hebrew bible
tekks some real stories and some not real
first jew
first prohpet "father" of betew people
what did the torah tell about abraham?
god told him to move to canaan
hebrew god
mutal promise between god and the founder of the hebrew people
-abraham promised to obey god and god would protect him and the hebrews
led the jews out of slavery in egypt
2nd covenant
god promised to pretect the hewbrews and they promised to keep gods commandments
what did the hebrews do after they left egypt?
they roamed the desert for 40 years and then went back to canaan after the death of moses
12 tribes
tribes lived in separate territories and were self governing
woman of the hebrews
ccould not officiate at religious ceremonies
raised children
judges of hebrews
would unite tribes and provide judicial and military leadership during a crisis
chosen by god
kindom of the hebrws united undder 3 kings: saul, david, and solomon
king david
united the tribes, established jerusalem as a capital, and founded a dynasty
built a trading empire w/ help of phoenicia, beautified jerusalem, and temple
why did the kingdom of israel divide into two?
-solomons projects required high taxes, men were foreced to labor on temple
caused much discontent
two kingdoms
north - israel
south - judah
peace money paid by a weaker power to a stronger
who did israel and judah pay tribute to and why?
to assyria-hoped to assure that their empire wouldnt attack, but they did anyway
nonviolence to all living things
puranas and ramayana
hindu writings

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