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page 100-104


undefined, object
copy deck
a scientist who studies the human past by examining the things people left behind.
archaeologist p.27
a tool or other object made by humans.
artifact p.27
to move from one location to another.
migrate p.27
former land bridge connecting Asia with North America and now under waters of Bering Strait.
Beringia (66 N 169 W), p. 27, m28
a way of life shared by people with similar arts, beliefs, and customs.
culture (KUL chuhr) n. (p.28)
the practice of breeding plants or taming animals to meet human needs.
domestication (doh MES ti KAY shuhn) (p. 28)
a form of culture characterized by city trade centers, specialized workers, organized forms of government and religion, systems of record keeping, and advanced tools.
civilization (siv uh li ZAY shuhn) n. (p. 29)
the practice of bringing water to crops.
irrigation n. (p.29)
an early Native American who built large earthen structures.
Mound Builder n. p.31
Illinois Mound Builders site; village taken from British by Clark in 1778.
Cahokia (39 N 90 W),31, m203
the use of tools and knowledge to meet human needs.
technology n. p.32
a small boat made of animal skins.
kayak (KY ak)n. p.33
a treeless plain that remains frozen under its top layer of soil.
tundra (TUN druh) n. p.33
a society in which ancestry is traced through the mother.
matrilineal (mat ruh LIN ee uhl) adj. p36
a 16th-century alliance of the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca Native American groups living in the eastern Great Lakes region.
Iroquois (IR uh kwoh) League n. p.37
a farming method in which people clear fields by cutting and burning trees and grasses, the ashes of which fertilize the soil.
slash-and burn agriculture (ag rih kuhl chuhr) n. p.37
first powerful West African trading empire in the 8th-11th centuries A.D.
Ghana (GAH nuh) n. p.39,40,m40
region from which most Africans were brought to the Americas.
West Africa 39,m40
a religion founded by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s, which teaches that there is one God, named Allah.
Islam (is LAHM) n. p.41
early West African trading empire succeeding Ghana empire.
Mali 41, m40
a West African people who lived in what is now northern Nigeria after A.D. 1000.
Hausa (HOW suh) n. p.42
West African people who formed several states southwest of the Niger River.
West African empire that succeeded Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591.
West African kingdom that arose near the Niger River delta in the 1300s.
A period from the late 400s to about the 1300s, during which Europeans turned to feudalism and the manor system.
European Middle Ages
A political system in which the king allow nobles the use of his land in exchange for their military service and their protection of people living on the land.
feudalism (FYOOD l iz uhm) n. (p.44)
A series of wars to capture the Holy Land, launched in 1096 by European Christians.
Crusades (kroo SAYDZ) n. (p.45)
A system in which lords divided their lands inot estates, which were farmed mostly by serfs who received protection from the lord in return.
manor system n. (p.45)
A period of European hsitory, lasting from the 1300s to 1600, that brought increased interest in art and learning.
Renaissance (rehn ih SAHNS) n. (p.46)
A machine invented about 1455 by Johannes Gutenberg
printing press n. (p.47)
A 16th entury religious movement to correct problems in the Roman Catholic Church.
Reformation n. (p.47)
Money a business makes, after subtracting the costs of doing business from the income.
profit n. (p.48)
A ship with triangular sails that allowed it to sail into the wind and with square ssails that carried it forward when the win was at its back.
caravel (KAR uh vel) n. (p.49)
A person who plans the course of a ship while at sea.
navigator n. (p.49)
Nation in southwestern Europe; leader in early oceanic explorations.
Portugal (p.49)
Nation in southwestern Europe; early empire builder in the Americas.
Spain (p.50)
West Indies island (shared today by Dominican Republic and Haiti) that Columbus mistook for Asia.
Hispaniola (p.52)
West Indies island near the Bahamas where Columbus first landed in the Americas.
San Salvador (p.52)
An economic system in which nations inrease their wealth and power by obtaining gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade.
mercantilism (MUHR kuhn tee liz uhm) n. (p.61)
A person sent by the Church to preach, teach, and convert native peoples to Chrstianity.
missionary n. (p.61)
The 1494 treaty in which Spain and Portugal agreeed to divide the lands of the Western Hemispere between them and moved the Line of Demarcation further west.
Treaty of Tordesillas (tawr duh SEE uhs) n. (p.61)
A Spaniard who traveled to the Americas as an explorer and a conqueror in the 16th century.
conquistador (kon KWIS tuh dawr) n. (p.63)
Former region of Mexico once under Aztec control (p.63)
Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire capital, now site of Mexico City.
Tenochtitlan (.p64)
Oldest permanent European settlement (1565) in the United States, on Florida's northeast coast.
St. Augustine (p.68)
A fleet of ships sent in 1588 by Philip II, the Spanish king, to invade England and restore Roman Catholicism.
Spanish Armada (ahr MAH duh) n. (p.69)
Narrow waterway separating Great Britain from France (p.69).
English Channel
First permanent French colony in North America.
New France (p.70)m148
Early Dutch colony that became New York in 1664.
New Netherland (p.70)
A province ruled by a viceroy, who ruled in the king's name.
viceroyalty (VYS roi uhl tee) n. (p.71)
Former North American provinc eof the Spanish Empire, made up mostly of present-day Mexico and the southwest United States.
New Spain (p.71)
A grant of Native American labor.
encomienda (en koh mee YEN huh) n. (p.72)
A large farm or estate.
haceinda (hah see En duh) n. (p.72)
A settlement created by the Church in order to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
mission n. (p.72)
Area of North Ameirca between Mexico and South America.
Central America (m72, Atlas)
A large farm that raises cash crops.
plantation n. (p.73)
The transfer of plants, animals and diseases between the Western and the Eastern hemisphere.
Columbian (kuh LUM bee uhn) Exchange n. (p.74)
The half of the world that includes the Americas.
Western Hemisphere (p.75)
The practice of holding a person in bondage for labor.
slavery n. (p.76)
The forced removal of Africans from their homelands to serve as slave labor in the Americas.
African Diaspora (AF rih kuhn dy AS puhr uh n. (p.78)
The middle leg of the triangular trae route -- the voyage from Africa to the Americas--that brought captured Africans into slavery.
Middle Passage n. (p.78)
The belief that some people are inferior because of their race.
racism (RAY sihz uhm) n. (p.79)
A law passed to regulate the treatment of slaves.
slave code n. (p.79)
Island off the coast of North Carolina; 1585 sit of the first English colony in the Americas.
Roanoak Island (p.85)m87
A business in which investors pool their wealth in order to turn a profit.
joint-stock company n. (p.86)
A written contract issued by a government giving the holder the right to establish a colony.
charter n. (p.87)
The first permanent English settlement in North America.
Jamestown n. (p.87)
Created in 1619, the first reprentative assembly in the American colonies.
House of Burgesses n. (p.88)
A person who sold his or her labor in exchange for passage to America.
indentured servant n. (p.88)
A revolt against powerful colonial authority in Jamestown by Nathaniel Bacon and a group of landless frontier settlers that resulted in the burning of Jamestown in 1676.
Bacon's Rebellion n. (p.89)
A member of the group that rejected the Church of England, sailed to America, and founded the Plymouth Colony in 1620.
Pilgrim n. (p.92)
An agreement established by the men who sailed to America on the Mayflower, which called for laws for the good of the colony and set forth the idea of self-government.
Mayflower Compact n. (p.93)
Town on Massachusetts coast and site of Pilgrim landing and colony.
Plymouth (p.93)
A member of a group from England that settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and sought to reform the practices of the Church of England.
Puritan n. (p.94)
A set of laws that were established in 1639 by a Puritan congregation who had settled in the Connecticut Valley and that expanded the idea of representative government.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut n. (p.95)
A war between the Puritan colonies and Native Americans in 1675-1676.
King Philip's War n. (p.96)
Large river in eastern New York.
Hudson River (p.100)
a person who brought 50 settlers to New Netherland and in return received a large land grant and other special privileges.
patroon (puh TROON) n. p.101
a colony with a single owner.
proprietary colony n. (pruh PRY ih tehr ee) p.101
a person who believed all people should live in peace and harmony; accepted different religions and ethnic groups.
Quaker (KWAY kuhr) n. p.101
a colony ruled by governors appointed by a king.
royal colony n. p.103
a colonial region that ran along the Appalachian Mountains through the far western part of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.
Backcountry n. p.109
northeast U.S. region made up of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.
New England p.109, m110
a farm that produces enough food for the family with a small additional amount for trade.
subsistence farm n. p.110
the transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America.
triangular trade n. p.111
numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, between Florida and South America.
West Indies p.111,m111
a series of laws passed by Parliament, beginning in 1651, to ensure that England made money from its colonies' trade.
Navigation Acts n. p.112
to illegally import or export goods.
smuggle v. p.112
a crop grown by a farmer to be sold for money rather than for personal use.
cash crop n. p.115
a mill in which grain is ground to produce flour or meal.
gristmill (GRIST mil) n. p.115
a skilled worker, such as a weaver or a potter, who makes goods by hand; a craftsperson.
artisan (AHR ti zuhn)n. p.117
a vehicle with wide wheels, a curved bed, and a canvas cover used by American pioneers traveling west.
Conestoga (kon i STOW guh) wagon n. p. 117
a variety of people.
diversity (di VUR si tee) n. p.117
a plant grown in the Southern colonies that yields a deep blue dye.
indigo n. p.121
a worker hired by a planter to watch over and direct the work of slaves.
Overseer n. p.122
a 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws.
Stono (STOH noh) Rebellion n. p.123
a mountain range that stretches from eastern Canada south to Alabama.
Appalachian (ap uh LAY chee uhn) Mountains n. p.126 m127
the point at which a waterfall prevents large boats from moving farther upriver.
fall line n. p.126
a broad plateau that leads to the foot of a mountain range.
piedmont n. p.126

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