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The way the first human beings went from Asia to the Americas-a narrow land bride that one connected Siberia and Alaska
Native Americans
From Alaska, these peoples slowly spread southwards into North and South America. THey developed different lifestyles depending upon the resources and climates that they found.
How did Native Americans get their food?
They were hunters and gatherers, moving from place to place in search of food.
In what areas did Native American peoples create highly developed societies?
Mexico, Central America, and South America
Developed the earliest Native American Indian civilization. Located in southern Mexico and Guatemala, the Maya made discoveries in science, astronomy, and mathematics
Created an empire in central Mexico about 700 years ago. They built stoneworks, pyramids, and temples
Formed a large empire along the Andes Mountains in South America, with extensive roads to connect their territories.
The earliest Native Americans in New York
The Algonquians
Also known as Haudenosaunee (the people of the longhouse) who later settled in northwestern New York
Round houses made of brances, bark, and grass where the Algonquians lived
Long, rectangular shelters made of branches, bark, and grass where Iroquois families lived togther.
How did Alonquians and Iroquois get food and clothing?
The men hunted and fished, and were fiece warriors. Women were responsible for growing corn and squash and preparing good. The Algonquians and Iroquois tribes made clothes from the skins of deer and other animals they hunted.
Five Iroquois tribes (COMOS)
Cayuga, Onondaga, Mohawk, Oneida, and Seneca
Iroquois Confederacy
Formed in 1750 by the five original Iroquois tribes and the sixth, Tuscarora, joined after. THis early form of political union had its own constitution, in which Iroquois tribes promised not to fight one another. It is believed the Iroquois constitution later influenced some authors of the U.S. Constitution.
About 500 years ago, what made it possible for Europeans to sail farther than ever before?
Better navigational skills and technological advances like the compass and the astrolabe(measured position of stars to find latitude at sea). Gunpowder made it possible for them to create strong armies.
Why did Europeans explore?
Strong rulers sought to find new trade routes to Asia, while missonaries sought to spread Christianity.
Christopher Columbus' journey
An Italian navigator who believed he could reach China and the Spice Islands by sailing westwards. Columbus set sail in 1492. He landed in the West Indies, where he later established Spain's first settlement in the New World.
What was the effect on Native Americans when Europeans heard of Christopher Columbus' discovery?
THey learned about new goods and obtained gold, silver, and land. Native Americans were easily conquered by Europeans, who had such weapons as guns, cannons, and horses. European diseases dramatically reduced Native American populations.
What were somg of Spain's rivals in the New World?
France, HOlland, and England
Jaques Cartier, Samuel de Champlain, and Robert de la LaSalle
French explorers who explored the St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River.
New France
France's colony that was established in Canada.
In Virginia where the first English colony was started in 1607. Soon, the colony at Jamestown became profitable by growing tobacco for sale in Europe.
Pilgrims and Puritans
Pilgrims-English settlers
Puritans-English Protestants
Established colonies in Massachusetts, where they could practice their religion freely.
Henry Hudson
Based on the explorations of him in 1609, the Dutch established a colony which they called New Netherland.
Other Dutch settlements
Fort Orange (now Albany) and New Amsterdam (now Manhatten)
Wheree early colonists tended to settle
Near rivers where they had an adequate source of water for raising crops
Dutch West India Company
Appointed a governor in order to control the colony.
Peter Stuyvesant
Most famous governor of Dutch colonies
New Netherland vs. English colonies
New Netherland separated the English colonies north and south of it. In 1664, Stuyvesant surrended the colony to English forces.
What did New Netherland, Fort Orange, and New Amsterdam become when it was taken from the Dutch by the English?
New Netherland=New York
New Amsterdam=New York City
Fort Orange=ALbany
13 colonies
Spread up and down the Atlantic coast-
1. new hampshire
2. new york
3. massachusetts
4. connecticut
5. rhode island
6. pennsylvania
7. new jersey
8. maryland
9. delaware
10. virginia
11. north carolina
12. south carolina
13. georgia
Colonial communities developed along European patterns. English colonists enjoyed the same rights as people living in England.
New England colonies
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island
New England life (jobs, food, land, climate)
Had less fertile land and a colder climate than other colonies. Had small farms where New Englanders grew crops for their own use. Many chose occupations like sailors, merchants, or fisherman
Middle colonies
New YOrk, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Maryland
Life in middle colonies
Winters were not as harsh as New England and summers were longer. Uncleared forests and fertile soils helped to draw many settlers to this area. People were also attracted to these colonies by the atmosphere of religious freedom.
Southern Colonies
Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
Life in Southern colonies (climate, products, work)
Climate war warmers than other parts of colonial America. Soil was well-suited to growing crops,. Some Southerners developed large plantations which grew tobacco, cotton, rice, and indigo for shipment to England in exchange for manufactured goods. Most large plantations used enslaved peoples from Africa, and their descendants, as main work force.
Governor of New York's charter of 1682
Charter guaranteed the colonists freedom of religion and trial by jury. Also created law-making body of elected representatives knwon as the Assembly.
Assembly of New York
Defended the interests of colonists-The governor, appointed in London, represented the intersts of Great Britain
John Peter Zenger
Plublished a newspaer in the 1730's which accused the governor of New York of being corrupt. The governor put Zenger on trial for libel, but ZZenger won his case when his lawyer showed that the statements he published were true. The case established the right of the press to criticize those in power.
How did the French and Indian War break out?
By the 1750s, the British claimed control of the Ohio River Valley, just across the Appalachians. The French had built forts along the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes to keep the British fur traders and settlers from crossing into their lands, and also claimed the Ohio River Valley. War finally broke out in 1754.
How the the French and Indian War get its name?
Because many Native American Indian tribes sided with the French
Albany Plan of Union
Proposed by Benjamin Franklin-a central colonial government would share power with separate colonies to help fight the French
What was the Albany Plan of Union a first for?
It was the first time colonies showed unity
How did the war end?
A British force captured Quebec in 1759, giving Britain control of the St. Lawrence River.
Treaty of Paris
France lost much of its colonial empire in North America-Canada and all lands east of the Mississippi-to the British.
The Proclamation Line of 1763
To prevent further Native American attacks, the British government declared that colonists could not settle on lands west of the Appalachians. This was resented by many Americans.
What did Britain do to help pay off the debts from the cost of protecting the colonies during the French and Indian War?
The British Parliament proposed new taxes without consulting the colonists.
Stamp Act
Taxes placed on all legal documents, newspapers, cards, calendars, dice, etc.
Sugar Act
Taxes put on sugar, coffee, indigo, and molasses
Stamp Act Congress
rejected Stamp Act and said that Parliamne thad no right to tax the colonies but declared their loyalty to Britain.
What was Britain's response to colonists?
Parliament repealed almost all of the new taxes except for the tariff on tea.
Townshend Act
items such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea were taxed
Writs of Assistance
used to search fr smuggled goods
Quarting Act
Colonists had to provide bedding for British soldiers
Boston Massacre
Boys threw ice at a British guard annd the crowd grew rowdy so soldiers opened fire and killed give colonists.
Tea Act
Because colonists were boycotting tea, the tea act said the British East India Company was allowed to sell tea directly to colonists, which cut tea merchants out of the trade and made colonists angry. Althought there was still a tea tax, tea was now cheaper. Colonists thought it was a trick to make them except the tea tax
Boston Tea Party
Colonists dressed as Indians, noarded three ships loaded with tea, and threw it overboard into the water
Intolerable Acts (4 parts)
Laws to punish the colonists of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party
1) Port of Boston was closed until the tea was payed for
2) Governor could ban town meetings
3) British officials accused of trial would have it in Britain instead of Massachusetts
4) A new Quarting Act was passed, forcing citizens to house troops in their homes
First Continental Congress
-response to intolerable acts
-representatives from colonies met
-Decided to continue protesting Biritsh taxes
Lexington and Concord
In 1775, open warfare broke out between British soliders and colonists. THe fighting quickly spread to other colonies and marked the beginning of the American Revolutionary War.
Wanted to remain under British rule
Wanted independence
Second Continental Congress
representatives from 13 colonies met again in Philadelphia and, after much debate, decided to declare American independence from Britain.
Declaration of Independence
-written by Thomas Jefferson
-issued on July 4, 1776
-explained reasons why colonists sought independence from Great Britain
What did thinks like John Locke and Jefferson believe?
That the governmnet was a "social contract" and citizens had a right to overthrow an oppressive government
George Washington
General during the revolutionary war
Where did colonists lose several early battles
new york and new jersey
where did the most fighting take place during the Revolutionary war?
new york
Ethan Allen
led colonists to capture Fort Ticonderoga in 1775
Battle of Long Island
British drove Washington and COntinental Army out of new york after this battle
Turning point of the war-British General John Burgoyne was defeated by Gneral Horatio Gates. Convinced France to side with the US
Battle of Yorktown
With Frnehc help, Washington managed to force the british to surrender in 1781 in yorktown, virginia
Treat of Paris (1783)
British recognized American independence and gave the lands between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Coast to US
-gave Florida back to spain
-the u.s. promised to ask state legislatures to pay loyalists for property lost during the war
What happened to the Iroquois Confederacy as a result of the war?
It collapsed, since the Iroquois mainly sided with the British
Impact of war on Loyalists
many fled to Canada
Impact on American soldiers
Many were rewarded with farmland in Northern and Western New York
Articles of Confederation
Agreement that created a weak central government in which the state governments could cooperate. Each state sent one representative to the new Congress. Congress could declare war and settle disputes, but it could not collect its own taxes or raise its own army. There was no President or national court system.
Why did the Articles of Confederation have a weak federal government?
They were afraid of their experiences with British monarchy and Parliament
Virginia Plan
called for stronger national government with three branches (legislative, executive, and judicial)
-called for legislature with number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state
New Jersey Plan
-called for stronger national government with 3 branches
-legislature where every state received one vote
Great Compromise
-House of Reps.-each state is represented according to population
-Senate-each state has 2 senators
-both houses of Congress must pass every law
New constitution
-great compromise
-national government has power to collect taxes and raise an amry, and have a President, Congress, and Court System
Three-fifths compromise
In order to determine the population of a state, only 3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted
Basic Principles that the Constitution was based on (3)
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Ability to Change
AMericans decide, through their elected representatives, what the government should do. THe people hold the real power in government
System where power was shared between the national gvovernment and the state governments. National government deals with matters that affect the whole country. State governments handle their own local affairs.
Separation of Powers
separates main powers of central government--legislative, executive, and judicial powers-into different branches: Congress, the President, and the Supreme COurt
Legislative Branch Job
Power to make the laws
Executive Branch Job
Power to carry out the laws
Judicial Branch job
power to inerpret the laws
State of New York Powers
Legislative- State Legislature
Executive- Governor
Judicial Power- COurt of Appeals
Checks and Balances
To prevent any one of the three ranches from becoming too powerful, the Constitution gave each branch ways to stop or "check" other branches. Ex. Senate must approve most Presidential appointments
Ability to change
Constitution can change thorugh amendments and elastic cuase
elastic clause
Gives congress power to make all laws that shall be "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the national government
additions to the constitution, which is more difficult to pass than an ordinary law to prevent changes except for very important changes and widespread agreement
How many states had to ratify the Constitution before it could become a law?
9 states
Opponents of the new Constitution who believed it would create a strong central government that would threaten individual freedom. They feared future government leaders might build a strong army and use it to collect taxes. They pointed out that there was no bill of rights in the new Constitution to protect individual liberties.
Those favoring the proposed Constitution.
-they pointed out that government under the Articles of Confederation had broken down. THey argued that a stronger central government was needed to preserve political independence. THey also argued that under the proposed plan, federalism and the separation of powers would prevent any one branch of the new government from becoming too strong.
Alexander Hamilton and John Jay
New Yorkers who contributed to the Federalist Papers.
Federalist Papers
A series of essays that argued that the new nation would not lost long if the proposed constitution were not adopted. These essays helped Americans to approve the new constitution.
Bill of Rights
Won support in several states-Was added in the form of the first 10 amendments protecting important individual liberties.
domestic policy
government policies that deal with conditions within the nation
foreign policy
concerns relations with other countries
what was george washington's major challenge?
to provide stability to the nation under its new form of government
The chief officials that Washington appointed also began meeting with him in what came to be known as the Cabinet. Over the years, as the government assumed greater responsibilities, new Cabinet departments were created.
What did Washington raise money for?
Washington needed to pay the large debt left from fighting the American Revolutionary War
Alexander Hamilton
Washington's Secretary of the Treasury who solved the nation's economic problems.
4 Parts of Hamilton's financial plan
1) Repay the Debt
2) National Bank
3) Whiskey Tax
4) Protective Tariff
Repay the Debt
Hamilton believed the national government should pay off the debts of the states and the previous national government to establish the nation's credit
National Bank
Creation of a national bank as a place to deposit taxes, provide sound currency, and to make loans to the national government
Whiskey Tax
Tax on whiskey to raise money from western farmers
Protective Tariff
High tariff--tax on imported foreign goods which would protect American industries from foreign competition
political parties
groups that try to elect their members to government offices so that they can pass laws favorable to their ideas
thomas jefferson
washington's secretary of state
Jefferson's supporters who believed that Hamilton's plan would benefit only the wealthy while hurting most others--led to formation of political parties
unwritten constitution
The Cabinet, political parties, and other practices that have developed
Defeat of the Protective Tariff
All programs apporved except this--South states opposed it b/c they believed it would make it harder for them to sell their crops to Britain and buy British goods
Whiskey Rebellion
Farmers west of Appalachian Mountains often converted excess grain to Whiskey. THey did this b/c it was easier to transport whiskey over the mountain than bushels of grain. Farmers refused to pay the tax and washington called up the militia and put down the rebellion
Who did Jefferson's supporters and Hamilton's supporters support in the French revolution?
Proclamation of Neutrality (1783)
Washington adopted a policy of neutrality; the US would avoid taking sides in European disputes or becoming involved in foreign wars.
Washington's Farewell Address
After 2 terms, he encouraged commerical ties with foreign countries, but cautioned Americans against entering into permanent alliances.
2nd President
Federalist John Adams
3rd President
THomas Jefferson--beat Adams in 1800 election
Jefferson's views on government
Believed best government was a weak one--Opposed special privaleges for wealthy and had strong sympathies for common farmer. Reduced size of army, ended naval expansion, and lowered government costs.
Embargo Act
American ships were prohibited from tarading with European nations. THe act hurt the economy and led to a depression
Why was the Embargo Act passed?
War between Britain and France causes British to search US ships for deserters from the British navy. This practice humiliated Americans and put pressure on Jefferson to take action but avoid war.
War of 1812 outbreak
British took Americans off their ships, claiming they were deserters of the British navy. Americans thought time was ripe to seize Canada from Britian. In 1812, Congress declared war on Britain. American forces tried to invade Canada, but were unsuccessful. In retaliation, British troops took Washington DC and burned down the White House.
Treaty of Ghent
-both sides went back to the war they were before war
-British promised they would not longer search American ships for British deserters.
IMportant points US made in war of 1812
-Americans proved that they could protect their independence
-Result-rise of American nationalism and a desire to expand the nation westwards
where did much of the war of 1812 fighting take place
Great Lakes and NEw York
ex. Buffalo, Sackets Harbor, American victory at Plattsburg
Battle of New Orleans
General Andrew Jackson was a hero in this battle that was fought before new news of peace arrived but after the war ended.
Jackson's Presidency
Elected in 1828
First President not born to wealth of from Eastern State (from TN)
-supporters were normal people, mostly laborers, farmers, and frontiersmen.
Why were Jackson's two years in term see an expansion of american democracy? 3 parts
1) Voting Rights-States eliminated requirement that voters own property, so that most white males over 21 could vote
2) Choosing a President-Selection of Presidential candidates by party leaders was replaced by nominating conventions, where popularly elected members of each political party chose their candidates
3) Campaign methods-new methods emerged with more voters-candidates held dinners, rallies, and public meetings. jackson invited ordinary ppl to his inauguration
Spoils system
Used by jackson, where supporters who helped in his electio campaign were apointed to government posts in place of existing officers
Trail of Tears
Thousands of Cherokees died along the trail of tears when they were forcibly moved from their tribal homelands by Congress under Jackson's influence
Dewitt Clinton
Proposed a 360 mile canal through Mohawk valley connectiong Lake Erie to the Hudson River. Farms could ship goods to NYC entirely by water.
Erie Canal
built by thousands of workers, including many Irish immigrants
-cities along canal prospered ex. syracuse, almany, buffalo, rochester
specie roads opened by private companies
Robert Fulton
inventor of the steamboat, which revolutionized water transportation
New york central
most important railroad that ran throught he mohawk valley like the erie canal
Jackson and the Federal Union
in 1832, SOuth Carolina threatened to secede because it opposed federal tariffs on imports. Jackson threatened force and the crisis was avoided. He emerged as a symbol of national unity over sectional intersts
America's own culture by early 1800s
Mixture of English, european, native american, and african traditions belnded together under american conditions
1800s-importance of farmers
-crops were basis of the nation's wealth
-southern crops-tobacco and cotton-exported
-farmers grew wheat and livestock to support growing population
-owning and working land according to seasons of year gave most farmers freedom and independence
Samuel Slater
defied British law by building from memory a machine in the US that made cotton fibers into thread, called spinning mill
what was the spinning mill followed by
a gradual increase in the use of machines, the use of steam power, and a shift from workling at home or in small shops to working in factories.
industrial Revolution
developements tat led to new industries, expanded transportation, and rapidly growing cities.
Bad working conditions
16-hour days in factories that were crowded, poorly lit, and unsafe
womens rights
denied equality and citizenship and lacked right to vote or hold public office
-farm women worked in the fields and cooked, cleaned, made clothes, and cared for their children
-many women worked outside the home as servants, laundresses, cooks, and factory workers
Seneca Falls Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and other reformers organized it
-passed a declaration similiar to the declaration of independence, which called for women to receive equal rights with men. Helped launch a movemny to change womens role in american life. eventually led to 19th amendment
19th amendmennt
womens right to vote
Free African Americans
-many set free following american revolution
-others freed when their owners died
-freedmen worked in a variety of occupations
-laws kept them from voting, traveling, and serving on juries
-feared being kidnapped and returned to life of slavery
african american slaves
-even in southern slave states, most white families had no slaves
-slaves generally owned by wealthy souterh landholders who grew cash crops such as tobacco, cotton, and sugar
-slaves endured back-breaking work on plantations as field hands
-living conditions were primitive.
-enslaved workers ate simple, unbalanced meals
african american slaves rights
not all workers on plantations or for the wealthy-some became skilled blacksmiths or carpenters and were gired out by their owners. even then, their wages remained the property of their owners
what basic rights did african americans get denied
they could be sold apart from their families when at the whim of their owners
what was the most populous state in the country by 1820
new york
Dorethea Dix
fought for the rights of the mentally ill.
when did slavery in NY become illegal
schools in NY in 1800s
NY state legislature provided money for public education, and ny became a leader in the number and quality of its schools. all students became entitled to a free elementary school education
Marbury vs. Madison
established the power of judicial review
judicial review
the right of the supreme court to declare a law UNCONSTITUTIONAL
What were the different parts of the US like right before the civil war?
North-manufacturing, fishing, and small farms
South--economy based on slave labor to grow crops
West-Nation's breakbasket, growing and shipping grain to the Norh and South
Refers to the greatly loyalty that many Americans felt toward their own region than to the country as a whole
cotton gin
invented by ELi Whitney
increased demand for slave labor in the South
abolitionists during slavery
believed that slavery was morally wrong and wanted to end it
Uncle Toms Cabin
by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Showed evils of slavery
Underground Railroad
a network of people who helped slaves escape to the North and Canada
What did SOutherns believe about the states' rights to leave the Union
they believed that each state had the poer to reject federal law or even leave the union altogether if it wished
Missouri COmpromise and Compromise of 1850
compromises that were able to temporarily keep the peace between the states and keep them together
Kansas-Nebraska Act
In 1854, congress passed a law allowing settlers in these two states to decide for themselves whether or not they wanted slavery. Resulted in bloodshed between those who favored and those who opposed slavery
Dred Scott Decision
SUpreme court ruled that congress could not prohibit slavery in any new territories. Ecen though Dred Scott had lived in a free territory, the court ruled he was still a slave without rights. The court argued that slaves were property and that congress had no right to take away a slaveholder's property
john browns raid
abolitionist john brown launched a slave revolt. his uprising was crushed and he was tried and executed.
why were southerns alarmed by john browns raid
Southerners were alarmed bc they feared future slave revolts
Why republican party was formed in 1854
FORMED to oppose the spread of slavery to new territories
1860 election
abe licoln, republican, was elected President
lincolns election effect
southern states, fearing lincoln would abloish slavery, seceded and formed the COnfederate States of America
fort sumter
Confederate forces attack FOrt SUmter in SOuthe Carolina and the civil war began
plus and minus of north and south in fighting the civil war
-superior military leadership
-defending homeland
-lacked manufacturing centers
-lacked strong navy
-larger population
-superior industry
-better transportation system
-greater naval powers
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln freed the slaves in the COnfederacy during the war
Thirteenth AMendmentr
later abolished slavery throughout the US
draft law 1863
required men to serve in army
draft riots
broke out in NYC to protest the law-attacked african americans
End of Civil War
South finally surrenders-preserves Union and abolishs slavery
Reconstruction period
refers to the decade after the civil war
South after civil war
In ruins-cities, railroad lines, and plantations had been destroyed by union armies
slaves in south after civil war
PLantations no longer had slaves and freedmen lacked jobs, land, and income
lincolns plan for southern states to be admitted back into the union
planned to readmit states on lenient terms, but was assasinated in 1865
Radical Republicans
refused to recognize new southern state governments
CIvil rights act of 1865
gave freedmen full rights
FOurteenth amednment
declared that no state government could deny american citizens full rights of equality before the law
monroe doctrine
in fear that european nations might try to reconquer them, The US would oppose any attempt by European nations to establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere or to reconquer former colonies. Also, US would not interfere with existing european colonies like cananda or cuba
Manifest Destiny
belief that it was americans clear future to entend the nation to the shores of the pacific
florida addition to the US
purchased from spain after war of 1812
texas added to us
texas declared independence from mexico and congress voted to make texas part of US in 1845
add oregon territory
line dividing US and canada goes to paficic
Mexican American War
Dispute between US and Mexico over Texas broder leads to Mexican-American war. After US wins war, Mexico ceded territory now occupied by California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico
add Alaska
alaska is purchased from russia after civil war in 1867

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