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SS Chapter 22


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U.S. policy of having little to do with the rest of the world.
why did the u.s. like isolation?
1. G.W. advised the nation to steer clear of permanent alliances in his Farewell Address
2. the u.s. was busily engaged in expansion in the western froniter
what happened when the u.s. wanted to trade with japan?
despite isolation , the u.s. was involved in trade throughout the world. japan refused to trade with any nation except one ship from the dutch east india company that was allowed to trade once a year. president millard fillmore sent commodore perry w/ four warships to tokyo bay in 1853 where they presented a letter asking to trade. the u.s. said that they would never return in a year for an answer. the japanese were impressed-they had never seen steam powered ships before. they signed the treaty of kanagawa saying they would trade with the u.s.
the policy when a more powerful country seeks to control the economic and political affairs of a weaker country.
age of imperialism
from 1870 to 1914. european countries had gained control over almost the entire continent of Africa and much of the southeast asia.
Three reasons for growth of imperialism
1. competition- european countries were in competition both militarily and economically. having colonies would help them compete
2. economic- industrial nations of europe wanted the raw materials from asia and africa. wanted to sell goods to these nations
3. cultural and religious-europeans believed they had a superior culture and that it was their duty to spread their "civilization" and Christiany to other peoplea and lands
what were the two american opinions on expansion?
a) expand-the u.s. was a world leder w/ manufactured goods and farm products to sel..--it needed to be in europe's race for colonies. america should spread its culture to other lands, especially since there was no american frontier after 1890.
b) no expansion-the u.s. had been a colony itself at one time
The Great WHite Fleet
the strong u.s. navy, organized by alfred mahan of the u.s. navy, who argued that future prosperity depended on naval power. he believed that foreign trade could be most important and that a strong navy was essential with bases all over the world
how did the u.s. gain hawaii?
hawaii~a chain of 8 major islands in the Pacific that was settled by people from polynesia.
-americans settled there first were missionaries and sugar planters-american power grew as sugar industry grew. planters forced hawaiian king kalakaua to give them more power than natives in a new constitution. queen liliuokalani came to power and rejected the constitution b/c she believed "hawaiians for hawaiians" american planters rebelled against her and u.s. marines arrived, who helped rebels.. president cleveland refused to annex hawaii b/c he felt the u.s. had interfered disgracefully. however, hawaii was annexed under president mckinley in 1898 and was a u.s. territory until it became the 50th state in 1959.
sphere of influence
an area, usually around a seaport, where a nation had special trading privileges. each nation made laws for its own citizens in its own sphere
Open door policy
secretary of state john hay urged european powers in china to follow an open door policy where any nation could trade in any other nation's sphere of influence.
what led up to hay's open door policy?
china had not industrialized in the 1800's and was victim of more powerful european nations who were in compeition for trading rights. by the late 1800's, britain, france, germany, russia, and japan had spheres of influence in china. the u.s. feared that they would be cut off from trading with china due to these spheres of influence, so the open door policy was suggested.
what was china's response to the open door policy?
the chinese resented increasing western (european and american) influence in their country. a secret society called the Boxers (or righteous fists of harmony) rebelled against the foreigners. european and american troops were sent in to end the bellion.
Second Open Door Policy
hay's second idea was a response to the Boxer Rebellion. Several nations saw it as an excuse for them to take more land in china. the second o.d.p. was a letter tat urged all nations to respect china's independence. it showed that the u.s. was playing a new role in world affairs.
pan-american union
group organized by secretary of state james g. blaine and sponsered by the u.s. made up of many countries (all but 1 latin american country) that increased cooperating and solved problems among the countries of the Western Hemisphere.
why did spain call cuba its ever-faithful island
b/c unlike the other spanish colonies, cuba did not rebel against spanish rule in the early 1800s.
cuban revolution
in the 1890's, cuba was still a colony of spain. there was an unsuccessful revolt against spain in 1868 that was finally crushed after ten years of fighting. in 1895, cuban rebels launched a new fight against spain. in response, spain sent a new governor, gerneral valeriano weyler. he used brutal tactics and put half a million cubans into detention camps called "reconcentrados." the u.s. became concerned b/c cuba is so close and b/c the u.s. traded a great deal w/ the island.
Two newspapers who wrote about the Sp.-Am war and what they wrotea about
yellow journalism newspapers printed sensational stories about the cuban situation.
ex. Joseph Pulitzer's World and William Randolph Heart's Journal used yellow journalism to boost the sales of their newspapers. they wrote grisly stories about spain's cruely to grab attention
Lola Rodriguez de Tio and Jose Marti
cuban patriots who kept up the battle for freedom. rodriguez wrote patriotic poems. marti told of the cuban struggle for freedom in his newspaper, Patria.
WHat led up to the U.S. declaring war on Spain?
in 1898, fighting broke out in havana, cuba. president mcKinley sent the battleshipMaine to protect American citizens and property. there was an explosion on the ship that killed about 260 people, the cause of teh explosion never determined. however, americand led by yellow journalism blamed spain and clamored for war. congress declared war on spain in april 1898.
how did the u.s. take the philipines???
theodore roosevelt sent commodore george dewey to attack the philipines, a spanish colony. when war broke out, he sailed to manila, the main city of the philipines. he destroyed the spanish fleet there and with the help of filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, captured Manila.
rough riders
Roosevelt gave up his job as Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Then he organized the First Volunteer Cavalry Reginment, later called the Rough Riders. They were a mixed crew-ranging from cowboys to college students and adventurers.
Battle of San Juan Hill
ROugh Riders as well as black soldiers of the 9th and 10th cavalry were vital to the victory also. THey charged up san juan hill and nearby kettle hill and toook control of the hill.
Battle for Santiago Bay
THe U.S. destroyed the spanish fleet at santiago bay. spain and the u.s. agreed to stop fighting. there were many more american casualties from tropical diseases than from battle.
Peace Treaty of the Sp.-Am. War
Signed in Paris, Spain gave the U.S. puerto rico and guam. spain also gave the u.s. the philipines in return for $20 million.
american opinions of the peace treaty
Many Americans objected the treaty because they said it made the u.s. into a colonial power. expansionists favored the treaty b/c they said that the navy needed bases in the caribbean and the pacific. they pointed out that the philipines and puerto rico offered new territory for americans. also many americans agreed with President McKinley, who said that the u.s. would uplift, civilize, and convert filipinos to christianity.
platt amendment
cubans were able to write their own constitution, but americans forced cuba to accept the platt amendment. the amendment limited cuba's right to make treaties and borrow money. it allowed the u.s. to intervene in cuba. it also gave the u.s. control of the naval base at guantanamo bay. the amendment meant that cuba was not truly independent.
foraker act
the u.s. set up a new government for puerto rico under this act. it gave puerto ricans a limited say in their own affairs. in 1917, puerto ricans were made citizens of the u.s. the u.s. set up schools, improved health care, and built roads. puerto rico became a self governing commonwealth of the u.s., but puerto ricans wanted to be free of foreign rule.
War in the philipines
filipinos felt betrayed by the u.s., who had helped them to become free from spain but then took their land after the war. led by emilio aguinaldo, they renewed their fight for independence. more than 4,000 americans and nearly 20,000 filipinos died in the ware. it finally came to an end when aguinaldo was captured. in 1902, the u.s. set up a government in the philipines similar to that of puerto rico but they were not made u.s. citizens. the philipines did not acheive complete independence until 1946.
How didthe U.S. achieve the goal of building a canal in Panama?
Roosevelt offered Colombia, which then owned Panama, $10 million and $250,000 a year to build a canal, but colombian officials turned down the offer. roosevelt was furious. he said "speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far." this meant that words should be backed up with power and describes T.R.'s aggressive policies in latin america. roosevelt knew that panama wanted freedom, and roosevelt made it clear the u.s. would help. he sent the warship, Nashville, to Panama and the next day the peolpe of Panama rebelled against colombia. american forces stopped colobian forces from crushing the rebellion, and panama declared its independence. the u.s. quickly recognized panama as an independent nation, and panama accepted the offer to build a canal on similar terms to the colombian offer.
what were the two biggest problems for building the panama canal?
1. defeating the mosquito borne illnesses such as malaria and yellow fever. William Gorgas won battle by draining swamps, spraying, and paving roads.
2. cutting through miles of rock-built gigantic locks.
Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine that claimed the right to intervene in Latin America to preserve law and order and to prevent European intervention.
Use of the Roosevelt Corollary on Dominican Republic
D.R. could not pay its debts so the U.S. took control of the country's finances for European countries and payed its debts. Most Latin Americans strongly resented this interference in their affairs.
dollar diplomacy
William Howard Taft, roosevelt's successor, also favored a strong american role in latin america. he wanted to substitute dollars for bullets. he urged american bankers to invest in latin america. it was better to use trade than warships to expand american influence in latin america. this policy was known as the dollar diplomacy.
what troubles did the u.s. have w/ mexico in the early 1900's?
Mexican ruler Porfirio Diaz welcomed american investment. most mexicans were poor and rebelled against their leader. president woodrow wilson at first stayed neutral, hoping mexico would develop a democratic government, he did not want to invade mexico. however, then mexico arrested several american sailors and wilson ordered the u.s. navy to occupy Veracruz, a mexican port. Then, General Francisco "Pancho" villa raided columbus, new mexico and killed 17 americans. wilson sent general john j. pershing across the border to capture villa. pershing led an army of 6,000 soldiers to mexico and mexicans protested the american invasion. in the end, wilson withdrew his troops, but it poisoned relations w/ mexico for years.

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