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Nationalism and Economic Development


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Which section was hit the hardest by the panic?
The west. Land speculation was cause for debt and in 1819, state banks foreclosed on Western farmland.
Treaty of 1818?
Shared fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland, joint occupation of Oregon Territory for 10 years, and the settling of northern limits on the Lousianan Territory for the 49th parallel which established the boundary between the US and Canada. The border is secure, and the west and south expand.
What happened as a Result of the Panic?
Nationalistic beliefs were shaken, and the west's view of politics changed. They now called for land reform and strongly opposed the 2nd National Bank as well as the imprisonment of debtors.
The Origin of the 1819 Panic?
Originated with the National Bank because the bank tightened credit in a last minute effort to control inflation. State banks foreclose and the value of money drops, there is mass unemployment, and people are forced to file for bankruptcy. Many are sent to debtor's prison.
What action did the US take in response to Raids?
General Jackson was commissioned into Florida to put a stop to the raids. He and his militia charged into Spanish Florida, destroying Seminole villages and hanging two indian chiefs. From there Jackson went to Pensacola, where he drove out the Spanish Governor and captured the city, hanging 2 british men accused of helping the Indians in the process. Spain finally realizes they can't defend Florida.
How did Dartmouth College vs. Woodward favor central government?
(New Hampshire) Dartmouth college was a private charter. They wanted to become a public institution. Judge Marshall declared that this was unconstitutional, because a private corporation couldn't be altered by the state.
McCulloch vs. Maryland. How did it favor central government?
Maryland wanted to collect tax from the Second National Bank of the United States. Marshall declares that a federal government cannot tax a federal institution because the power to tax is the power to destroy. Federal laws still reign supreme over state laws.
Gibbons vs. Ogden? How did they favor central government?
Can the government control interstate commerce? Yes- by deeming NY's Monopoly as unconstitutional.
What happened to the population west of the Appalachian Mountains after the War of 1812?
It doubled.
4 factors that stimulated raid growth?
1. Acquisition of Indian Land: Once the indians were driven out, there was more room for settlement.
2. Economic Pressures: People need jobs, and tobacco farmers need land. Available land is found in Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas.
3. Improved Transportation: Canals, railroads, steamboats, roads, and horse-and-buggy are coming into play
4. Immigrants: Cheap land in the Great River Valley leads to the attraction of Europeans.
4 issues of the greatest importance to the people settling in the West?
- Cheap Money
- Land made available by the government at low prices
- Better Transportation
- Slavery= South wants it for economic reasons, north doesn't.
Why did Missouri's request for statehood touch off a sectional crisis?
Missouri was already a slaveholding body. If they became a state, they would tip the political scales in the South's favor. People worried about the status of new territories applying for statehood.
How does Tallmadge Amendment address the issue?
Prohibit future slaves from entering Missouri, and states that the children of current slaves must be emancipated at the age of 25. This would lead to the eventual elimination of slavery- so it's knocked.
Who is "The Great Compromiser"?
Henry Clay
How was the crisis resolved?
(Missouri Compromise)
Clay proproses that Missouri is a slave state, Maine is a free state, and slavery will be prohibited in the rest of the Lousiana Territory, north of latitude 36 30. Sectionalist tensions subside over the next 30 years and many believe this prevented a Civil War.
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
Limited naval armaments in the Great Lakes. Agreement extended to limit powers to boundary fortifications.

The border between the US and Canada remains the longest Unfortified boundary in the world.
Adams-Onis Treaty?
Florida Purchase Treaty. Spain gives east and west Florida to the US, as well as its' claims to Oregon territory in exchange for $5 million and Texas.
President Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams allowed a ______ policy that advanced interests and maintained ________ ?

What motivates Monroe and Jackson to take Action in Spanish Florida?
Chaotic conditions that permitted groups of Seminoles, runaway slaves, and white outlaws to conduct Raids in US territory and retreat over the border into Spanish Florida safely.
Who was the president in 1816 and 1820?
James Monroe.
Why were the years of his presidency referrd to as the "Era of Good Feelings"?
Nationalism, optimism, and goodwill were abundant at this time because the Federalists had faded into oblivion and were no longer in power, leaving the Republican party to dominate politics. People thought the Republicans would create an environment of unity and harmony.
Why was the "Era of Good Feelings" misleading and oversimplified?
Because there were political problems arising. Heated debates over public land sales, the national bank, and internal improvements were abundant and sectionalist tensions over slavery were more apparent.
One's devotion to the interest or culture of their country and the belief that their country will prosper working independently, rather than collectively, emphasizing national goals.
How did Nationalism manifest itself culturally?
Patriotic themes were adopted at this time and showed in newspapers, plays, children's toys, and other forms of media. Revolutionary War Heroes were enshrined, and people were being educated on the deeds of people like George Washington.
What 2 aspects were part of Economic Nationalism?
Tariff of 1816, and Henry Clay's American System (Internal Improvements)
How would Clay's goal be met?
National banks, once the charter was renewed would help control the economy by stabalizing currency.
Protective Tariffs would benefit the east, and Internal Improvements would aid the economy.
What 2 aspects were already in place, and where was there a problem?
Tariffs and the bank were in place. Internal improvements posed a problem because Monroe and Madison declared the building of roads unconstitutional- strict interpretation- let the states decide, and they go with it.
What was the goal of Henry Clay's American System?
Advancing the economy of the states.
What is a panic?
National disaster or depression.
Why was the Protective Tariff considered protective?
Because Congress placed the tariff on certain goods in order to protect US manufacturing. The downside to this is that the US is unable to sell goods overseas.
Factory System?
Introduced in 1791 by Samuel Slater.
- Embargo, War of 1812, and tariffs equal good factory growth

New England becomes the center of manufacturing due to:
- an abundant water supply
- good seaports for shipping
- rocky soil (men go west, women work in the factory).
Raised capital by selling shared stock for.
Hard to find men to work because they were all lured out west by cheap land. To find workers they:
- Used the Lowell System- recruited women from the towns to work in the factories (80% are single)
- Used extensive child labor
- Used Immigrants, although most of the immigrants were not used in the factories until mid-century.
Mechanical Inventions?
Eli Whitney introduced interchangeable parts which becomes the basis for production.
Factors leading to growth?
- Mechanical Improvements
- Labor
- Corporations
- Factory Systems
Growth of Industry
Manufacturing economy is new at the start of the 19th century. By 1850 it surpasses Agriculture in value.
Cotton and the South?
Eli Whitney's cotton gin was the turning point in industry.

Planters find cotton to be more profitable than tobacco or indigo, and they invest capital on slaves. Also, Great Britain has a use for it in the textile mills.
Commercial Agriculture?
Originally it was subsistance farming, then cash crop, and finally commercial farming.
What was the European Reaction to the Monroe Doctrine?
Europeans were mad, and monarchs were infuriated. The Doctrine is actually not put into place for years.
What was the main purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?
To get Europe (England in particular) to stay out of the affairs of the Western hemisphere.
What factors led to the formulation of the Monroe Doctrine?
Russia's expansion from Alaska to San Francisco and the rise of monarchs in Europe that were seeking to put Spain back in control.
Introduction of toll roads is pretty much unheard of at this time because the state does not fund them. The only exception is the Cumberland Road- the national toll road. It runs from Missouri to Illinois. State and Federal laws are used.
Important for economic development, the movement of people, raw materials, and manufactured goods.
Population Growth?
Laborers and consumers are important to economic development.
- High birthrate
- Immigrants from North and West Europe.
Erie canal is the first to be built in NY, 1925. This leads to other states wanting to build canals.

Canals connect the economies of western farms and northern cities, lower the cost of food in the east, and attract immigrants for western settlement.
1907- the Clermont is developed by Robert Fulton, and made shipping faster and cheaper.
Appeared in the 1820s. By the 30s the were in competition with other methods of transportation.

Links between towns and cities led to the development of western towns into becoming commercial centers.
Why Commercial Agriculture?
Cheap land and easy credit. 2nd National Bank made loans at low interest costs to farmers.

New markets in growing factory cities teamed up with canals and railroads to provide farm products to the east.
Standard of living increased for most Americans.
Fast changing impersonal economy- presents new challenges and problems.
- Many women no longer work next to husbands on the farm.
- Majority of working women were single.
- If married- left jobs and took up duties in the home...the role of women changes.
Doctrine of Separate Spheres?
Traditionally, women are subordinate in all facets.
2 spheres- men are superior in money making and governing.
Women are the moral influence on the family- raises the kids- not only disciplines them but makes the decision on how many she wants.
As a result of the 2 spheres?
Birth rates fall (1800- 7.04 kids per woman, 1850- 5.02, 1900- 3.98)
- citie rates drop and rural rates are higher because most women went into the rural areas so their children can work on the farms since children weren't permitted in factories.
Early Contraception?
coitus, interruptus, absinence, abortion, douching, condoms and diaphraghms.

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