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Johnson's World Civ Final


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the Incan leader
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador-conquered the Aztecs
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas (Peru) captured Atahualpa
Muslim tool that lets you look at the stars-for navigation
1400s-European shp with new improvemetns
gold money
Triangular Trade
slave trade between Europe, Africa, and teh Americas
the Middle Passage
middle leg of the triangular trade (carted the Africans)
Northwest passage
trying to find a passage from America to Asia (didn't exist)
spanish conqueror or soldier in the Americas
going around the world
Amerigo Vespucci
helped columbus, america's namesake
John Cabot
Henry VII commissioned him to find a northern route to the area columbus found, reason Britain had a claim in the americas
Eric the Red
Lief Ericsson's father, exiled from Iceland, found Greenland
Lief Ericsson
returned to Norway, converted to Christianity
Bartholomeu Diaz
Portuguese explorer who tried to find the southern tip of Africa, proved ships could reach Asia by sailing around Africa (Cape of GOod Hope)
James VI of Scotland
also James I of England...the king
Peter the Great
Peter I, took over Russian throne and tried to make it European
Ivan IV
Ivan the terrible
one of the most powerful of teh early czars, cruel, religious, took many steps against boyars/nobles to reduce threat, had a secret police
Catherine II
Catherine the Great-sezed teh throne from her husband, Peter III
Empress of Russia until 1796
influenced by western thinking, good to the people, successful foreign policy, expanded Russian borders-warm water port, defeated Ottoman Turks, last of teh great absolute monarchs of the 18th century
Louis XIV
the most powerful Bourbon monarch, king when he was 5, 72 year reign, se thte style for European monarchies
a form of government where power is held by individual or group
special agents of the crown with authority over government affairs in France
new class of Russian landed nobility established by Peter the Great
Divine Right
ruler gets power and authority from G-d
a miserly person
solution proposed to explain set of facts which can be tested
Rene Descartes
encorporated scientific thought into philosophy, analytic geometry
John Locke
life, liberty, and property; people give up rights to government for protection
Polish astronomer at forefront of scientific revolution
natural law
universal moral law, understood by applying reason
wrote the Principia, work of gravity and optics
scientfic method
pen name for Francois Marie Arouet
French author and deist,
poetry, plays, essays and books
wrote satire and challenged notions that everythign that happens happens for the best, exiled
Enlightened despot
monarchs who practiced ideas of enlightenment
astronomer, world is round
invented the printing press
French gathering, where enlightened intellectuals met for conversation
led by John Wesley stretched value of personal religious experience
John Wesley
led ideas of Methodism
Reign of Terror
Jacobins crushing all opposition in France
moderates in French revolution, felt that the revolution had gone far enough, protect wealthy/middle class from radical attacks
Declaration of the Rights of man and the citizen
French equivalent to American declaration of independence and bill of rights
Paris prison (political prisoners)
1815, French troops defeated, Napoleon imprisoned
secondary schools designed to provide well educated patriotic government workers
French middle class or 3rd estate
Sans Culottes
shopkeepers, artisans, and workers (Parisians)involved in French revolution
(wanted respect)
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon made old French laws clear and ocnsistent
Coup d'etat
overthrowing of government by the people
balance of power
distribution of power to keep one nation from take others over
industrial capitalism
continuing investing in factories and new business
wealthy class that helped start businesses
enclosure movements
trend for large landowners to enclose their land and public land, forcing the poorer farmers who farmed the public lands to move to cities
collective bargaining
negotiations between union reps and employers
factory system
method of production on a factory
business cycle
alternating periods of decline and incline of economy
economic principle, developed by Jeremy Bentham, social and political actiosn should be useful to humans
laissez faire
economic principle, government doesn't place restrictions on economy
Charles Darwin
father of natural selection
Adam Smith
the Wealth of Nations, capitalism, invisible hand
Karl Marx
father of socialism-"Communist Manifesto"
making countryside into cities
local assembly in czarist Russia
Russian national legislature
beating of Jews in Russia
extreme patriotism
policy of enforcing Russian language and customs on others
camillo de cavour
helped found the newspaper "Il Risorgimento"
became prime minister or Sardinia
Sardinian statesman and chief architect of Italy's unification
name given for italian unity
the russian political movement of the late 1800s that rejected all authority and advocated terrorism
to divide a region
a country whose policies are are guided by a foreign nation
Axis Powers
against the Allied powers in WW2-Germany,Italy, Russia (at the beginning), Japan, some African countries
Gavrilo Princip
the 19 year old member of Black Hnad who killed the Archduke and his wife, sparking WWI
Britain attacked teh Turkish at Gallipoli to shift their attention from Flanders -Turks defeated the British
political philosophy based on nationalism and an all-powerful state
weimar republic
the german democratic republic which lasteed from 1919-1933
caused political instability, there was a nationalistic coup in 1920 (page 783)
20th century art movement using distorted, surprising images
under fascism, an organization of workers and employers in an industry
in Marxist theory, the working class
Mao Zedong
leader of the Red army in China, became the COmmunist dictator
civil disobedience
nonviolent refusal to obey or practice a law thought unjust
a person who is opposed to war or violence as a way to settle disputes
pearl harbor
the japanese attacked the US at Pearl Harbor, causing the US to enter WW2-november 1941
the nazi secret police, also known as the SS
arrested Jews and political opponents
penalties and restrictions imposed on a nation for breaking internation law
cold war
the era of political tension in which the US and teh SOviet Union competed for world influence without actual armed conflict
the iron curtain
the border between communist russia nd europe-term was first used by Winston Churchill
the leveling of public accusations of political subversion without regard to evidence
nations in the iron curtain region that are controlled by the Soviet Union
Chiang Kai-Shek
leader of the Guomindang party in China
first, allied with Communist Russia, then turned against the Communists and killed them all
a situation in wich two opponents are unable to move significantly or make further gains
code name for Viet Cong
Giuseppe Garibaldi
the leader of Italy after Ferdinand II
Giuseppe Mazzini
the most effective speaker for teh Risorgimento
cultural struggle between Church and state the Bismarck faced with the Catholic Church
the principal political figure in Austria during the early 1800s who believed democratic and nationalist movements would destroy the Austrian Empire and threated peace in Europe
political theory that national success justifies the use of any means
decembrist revolt
the revolt of officers after the napoleonic wars who staged a militay revolt but failed
"White Man's Burden"
Rudyard Kipling, a British author, captured the esence of teh imperialist attitude in this poem, which was addressed to the US
the speread of European culture
sphere of influence
area in a country where a foreign power has exclusive rights to trade or invest
central powers
germany, austria-hungary, ottoman empire, bulgaria-during WWI
allied powers
fought against central and axis powers, england, france, russia, usa, etc
black hand
union of death, the group wo assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, spark for WWI
Wilson's 14 points
a peace plan whose terms included international recognition of freedom of the seas and trade, limitations on arms, and an end to all secret alliances
payments for damages
zimmerman telegram
the british intercepted this message from germany to mexico about mexico attacking the us in return for receiving the ladn lost in the Mexican war
a british passenger liner that was sunk by germans, killing over 1,000 people
under stalin, a system to combine land into large farms owned by the government and worked by the peasants
new deal
FDR's plan that believed the federal governemnt had to aid the stricken economy and provide relief for the unemployed
social democratic party
lassalle, pushed teh universal german workingmen's association to merge with teh social democratic party to become a major political force
(the nazi party?!)
20th century art style that abstracts natural forms into geometric shapes
an official effort to remove people that a governemtn considers undesirable
limiting or reducing military forces and weapons
Il Duce
"the leader" in Italian. Mussolini called himself this after the Fascist-controlled parliament gave Mussolini new powers
Nazi terrorist attacks, November 9-10, 1938, on Jewish property in Germany and Austria
concentration camps
place where Jews were taken during the Holocaust. most famous were auschwitz and buchenwald. at the camps, jews were starved, beaten and worked to death, finally liberated at the end of WWII
movement encouraging unity and cooperation among African nations
Harry THuku
Kenyan activist-1921 protested European presence in Kenya, complainign about high colonial taxes and strick British labor laws-the British let Europeans establish plantations and hired Kenyans for little money and made them work under harsh conditions-in 1921 colonial officers arrest him during protest--riots caused--he is exiled
term given to Gandhi, meanign "great soul"
term used by Gandhi which means truth force. this was used to describe the nonviolent protests that he led after the Amritsar massacre
Mohandas Gandhi
indian nationist leader. helped rid india of the british. promoted hindu//muslim unity in the indian national congress. around during formation of pakistan, used nonviolent protest like salt march to get rid of british. did lots of fasting, and was shot by Hindu
jomo kenyatta
took over the nationalist movement in the absence of thuku. met with government officials to fight for independence, wrote facing mount kenya
the battle of midway. americans defeat japanese navy and ends japanese naval superiority in the pacific
battle of the bulge
a desperate offensive by Hitler. germans cut through american forces, creating a great bulge. checked the Germans offensive at Bastogone-then crossed the Rhine river
battle tactic-massive ngith bombings-used in London by Germany-bombed for 57 consecutive nights
US policy during WWII-lend equipment to any country to any defense US deemed valid to the nation security of the US
policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in order to maintain peace-chamberlain wanted to grant Hitler's demands-but Hitler said "demands were now useless"
collective security
Britain, France, and teh US couldn't agree on what was needed to defend their common interests against attack
warsaw pact
military agreement between NATO and the Soviet Union (and its Eastern European Allies)-real purpose was to strengthn Soviet hold on Eastern Europe as to defend it. 1968-Soviet Union appealed treaty to justify invasion of Czechoslovakia
marshall plan
created by secretary of state george c. marshall, this was a play to provide aid to europe immediately after WWII to avoid another economic downfall and then another world war
Berlin Blockade
a plan used by the Russians to cut off all land access from the West into west berlin. the US and other western nations considered and rejected the idea of using force to regain access. instead, they came up with the idea of airlifting needed supplies to the isolated city which was dependent on western supplies for survival.
cuban missile crisis
krushchev started to secretly install nuclear missiles on cuba. kennedy blockaded cuba andforced khrushchev to withdraw the missiles. a significant event in teh cold war-signed a treaty banning the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere
US policy designed to prevent the spread of communism-isolating the communist nations to make teh communist ideas dissolve
a person who openly criticizes the policies of his or her government
peaceful coexistence
a policy created by Khrushchev in which the Soviets would compete with the west but avoid actual war
US policy designed to prevent the spread of communism-isolating the communist nations to make teh communist ideas dissolve
truman doctrine
this doctrine states that the US would take on the international responsibilities as the leaders of the western world
the kitchen debate
in 1959, VP nixon visited an expo of American products with Soviet leader Krushchev. the 2 leaders got into an argument on the merits of capitalism vs. communism. the argument became known as teh "kitchen debate"because the 2 men were standing in front of a model kitchen display
sputnik 1
first space satellite-launched by Soviet Union in 1957-stunned US. caused "technology race"
stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization, unites the countries in that region together in an alliance consisting of US, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Canada, Greece, Turkey, and Germany
Domino Theory
the belief that if one country in a region fell to communism, its neighbors would fall as well
Ho Chi Minh
the leader of Vietminh, the communist government in Vietnam
in China, a moderate who advocated economic reforms and trade with the west
Agent Orange
chemical used for clearing out areas of woods and trees, linked to birth diseases and cancer
chemical used for clearing out areas of woods and trees

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