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WC Ch. 27


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One country dominates another (politcally, economically, socially).
Ex of imperialism in ancient times.
Period from 1800 to 1914.
Age of Imperialism
Three things that was caused by the age of imperialism
1. nationalism (conquest for power)
2. IR - demand for raw materials
3. religion/racial superiority
What was communication like between colonies and countries?
What caused conflict in Africa after countries just started colonizing?
Claimed the same areas
What were two economical advantages of having colonies?
1. raw materials
2. sold finish products back to colonies
Countries needed what to ensure support in colonies?
Loyal citizens from mother country
Who made a fortune off of gold and diamond mining and founded Rhodesia?
Cecil Rhodes
Why did missionaries set up missions in Africa?
- thought christianity was superior
- thought africans weren't civilized
- impose western culture
- "survival of the fittest" racially superior
Who was the poet who wrote "The White Man's Burden"?
Rudyard Kipling
What is a territory that an imperialist power rules directly?
What is ruled by its own government, but foreign officials guided the policies?
What is a region where an imperialist power held exclusive investment/trading rights?
sphere of influence
What did imperialist powers use to decide what type of gvt to set up?
size of area, how many people are living there
Who was a scottish doctor/missionary that explored Africa for 30 years?
David Livingstone
Who was sent to find Livingstone, and went on to go on his own expeditions in Africa?
Henry Stanley
Because of Livingstone and Stanley, what happened?
Europe realized Africa had lots of raw materials and quickly scrambled to claim some
In 1885, what was passed to divide up Africa?
In 1914, what percentage of Africa was controlled by Europe?
In 1830 who led France in the invasion of Algeria?
King Charles X
Who was the Algerian leader who defended against France's King Charles X?
Abd al-Qadir
In 1889, what did France seize?
In 1905, what did France seize?
In th 1800s, Egypt was independent under what leader?
Muhammed Ali
T/F: Muhammed Ali like to spend money funding buildings and such, and got into debt.
Who built the Suez canal?
Ferdinand de Lesseps
In 1882 the British defeated Egypts army. Who led this Egyptian army?
Ahmed Arabi
In 1882 when Egypt was defeated by Britain, what did Egypt become?
a protectorate
In 1898, what did the British claim that the French would also want?
The Sudan
What did Italy seize, and who did they have to fight to get it?
Libya, Ottoman Turks
What was the last country in N. Africa that was conquered by Europe?
After the slave trade was abolished, what happened to W. Africa's economy?
1900s- French conquer and take over what?
French West Africa
Who was the ruler of the kingdom that is now Senegal that led an army against the French?
Samory Toure
Who was the king of the Dahomey that fought the French?
What was the only remaining free state in Africa?
After Stanley reached the Congo River and wrote about how many resources it had, who claimed it and enslaved the people?
Leopold II of Belgium
When Leopold II decided to return the Congo to the government in return for a loan, what did it become?
Belgian Congo
What was the only independent country in east africa?
Who tried to conquer Ethiopia?
Why wasn't Italy successful in taking over Ethiopia?
Led by a very powerful Menelik II
Who was Ethoipia's Emporer?
Menelik II
Who were the duth that settled in Cape Town?
Who was Zulu's king?
In the battle between the British and the Boyars, who won?
In the 1800s, the British moved to find what?
What was the reason for the Anglo-Boer war?
British wanted Boers to grant them civil rights
Who was a lawyer from India who wanted the equality of Indians in S. Africa?
In 1912, black South Africans founded what to work for their rights?
South African Native National Congress
How did imperialists profit by taking over Africa? (Also results of the imperialism)
- dug mines, plantations, built factories/ports
- cheap labor
- taught that West. cult. is best
- Ancient traditions disappeared
Who wrote the book "Description of the World"?
Marco Polo
Why did Europeans start to look to Asia?
Marco polo wrote a book describing imaginary riches
What company, founded around 1600 became one of the riches and most powerful trading companies in the world?
East India Co.
What was the battle in 1757 between the British and French-trained Indian forces?
Indian soldiers
After the East India Company came to control most of India, who rebelled?
Was the Indian revolt against the East India co. successful?
What is a governor ruling as a royal representative?
After the British Parliament dissolved the East India co, what did it do?
Sent a viceroy
How did the British gvt try to quell further unrest in India?
spend money on its econ development
What did the British govt build in India?
paved roads, railway sys, telegraph lines, irrigation canals, universities, schools
Although the British appeared like they were helping Indians, what were they actually doing?
Imposing their culture, forcing them to change
Because there were food shortages and dying Indians, what did they do in 1885?
Formed Indian National Congress- wanted more power
Was China interested in trade with Europe?
Instead of actually paying for Chinese tea, silk and porcelain, what did merchants do?
smuggled opium
Who won in the Opium war?
Because of the Opium War, what occured (foreign policy-wise)?
many unequal treaties with China (many countries)
At the end of the 1800s, what did all the European countries do to China?
divided it up into spheres of influence
Because the US didn't get a sphere of infl. in China, what did it try to do?
open China to trade by the Open Door Policy
The imperialism of China really annoyed what member of the Qing Dynasty's royal family?
Ci Xi
What did Ci Xi encourage Chinese people to do?
gather in secret to plot against the imperialists
What was one group of anti-imperialists that emerged as a result of Ci Xi's encouragement?
Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
How did the Boxers (Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists) gain strength?
belief in Chinese rituals/traditions, hatred of foreigners
In 1900, what did the Boxers do?
attacked foreigners, chinese christians
Where did the Boxers attack?
After the Boxers attacked, the govts of foreign powers gathered troops and did what?
marched into beijing and quelled the rebellion
After the attacks by the Boxers, Ci Xi did what to help her people?
established schools, reorganized the govt
Did the people of China like Ci Xi's changes?
too late- they wanted a revolution
Who became the United League party leader of China?
Sun Yat-sen
Even thought the attacks of the United League were unsuccessful, Ci Xi died, so what happened to the dynasty?
After the emporer's own troops revolted against him, who became the first president of the new Republic of China?
Sun Yat-sen
When did explorers first reach Japan?
In the 1600s, what was the military commander called that ruled japan?
When did the Japanese begin trading with the outside world?
Who was the first to come to Japane to trade?
Matthew Perry
Why was the shogun of japan so eager to sign a treaty with Matthew Perry?
knew about the opium war
Because Western countries made Japan sign unequal treaties, what did the people of Japan do?
threw out the shogun
Who became emporer of Japan after the people kicked their old shogun out?
Mutsuhito was known as the what emperor?
What did Japan's Meiji leaders try to do to japan?
make it powerful- could compete with the west
What kind of gvt did the Meiji leaders support?
By establishing a system of universal education, the Meiji leaders were able to create what?
new ruling class based on talent rather than birth
Although Japan wanted to industrialize in the 1870s, what was it reluctant to do?
borrow money
What did Japan do to help industrial expansion?
revised tax structure, developed modern currency system, supporded the building of postal/telegraph networks, railroads and port facilities
By the 1890s, Japan was a strong world power. But, what did it lack?
natural resourses!
When the people of Korea revolted against China, what did Japan do?
defeated the chinese in the Sino-Japanese war
After Japan won Korea, who else wanted Korea?
What was the result of the Russo-Japanese war?
russia signed treaty granting japan control over korea
What are the two archipelagos in Southeast asia?
East Indes, Philippines
Indonesia had many natural resourses like what?
rich soil: coffee, pepper, cinnmon, sugar, indigo, tea; tin, copper; ebony , teak, etc.
What system did the Dutch govt use (method of forced labor) on the islands of SE asia?
culture system
What is the spread of european culture?
Who was the native prince from the island of Java that started a revolt against the dutch in 1825?
Who ruled the philippines?
When the US declared war on the Spanish in 1898, what did it promise the philippines?
make it independ. if they'd help in the war
Did the US keep its promise to the philippines after the Spanish-American War?
Why did the British and French struggle for power over SE asia?
military reasons
What is the region that includes present-day Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos?
What is the capital of Siam?
Who invaded Bangkok?
What did the monroe document claim?
europe couldn't colonize the american continents, and if they do, they'll take it as a threat
What country was the US trying to help when passing the Monroe doct?
Latin americas
What is the settlement by a third party?
Why did Britain agree to a peaceful settlement with the US concerning Venezuela?
US threatened with the monroe doctrine
Why was cuba important to spain?
spain reaped huge profits from the islands sugar and tobacco plantations
Who led cubans in a revolution against the Spanish?
Jose Marti
What happened after the Cuban revolution?
cubans sent to prison camps- 400,000+ died
What impact did the Cuban imprisonment have on the citizens of the US?
they wanted to declare war against spain and help cuba
Who ordered the battleship MAINE to Cuba, where it blew up?
How long did the spanish-american war last?
four months
What was the result of the spanish american war?
US got new territories
What was built to help the US move its fleet from the Pacific ocean to the atlantic ocean?
panama canal
Who succeeded in finding a way to get the panama canal built?
theodore roosevelt
How did Roosevelt get Panama to let them build the canal?
negotiate treat (didn't work) then had citizens rebel against the gvt
What was the result of the american-inspired revolt in panama?
republic of panama
Why did the US continue to exert its power over latin america after the canal was built?
canal gave it more power
What did roosevelt do to the monroe doctrine?
"roosevelt corollary" -> US = polic power to force Latin American countries to honor their debts
What did the conservatives favor?
orderly gvt in hands of wealthy, catholic church, military
What did the conservatives in Mexico favor?
orderly gvt in hands of wealthy, catholic church, military
What did the liberals in Mexico favor?
limits of power of military and church, break up large estates, etc
Who was the native american lawyer who was voted the president of mexico?
Benito Juarez
Who succeeded Juarez as Mexican pres?
Porfirio Diaz
Whose presidency was the longest in Mexico?
Porfirio Diaz
How did Porfirio Diaz ensure law and order?
relied on the army, stifled individual freedoms
Who overthrew Porfirio Diaz?
mestizos, native americans
Who was the leader of the new mexican gvt after Porfirio Diaz was thrown out?
Francisco Madero
Who assasinated Francisco Madero?
Who tried to throw out Huerta? (US PERSON)
woodrow wilson
How did wilson throw out huerta?
ordered the marines to seize the mexican port of veracruz, shut off his supplies
After Huerta, what 3 leaders emerged?
Carranza, Villa, and Zapata
Why did Villa go on an anti-american killing spree?
upset that the us recognized carranza as the pres not him
Why did the US leave mexico?

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