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World Civ. 2


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by 1600s the nation had replaced the city and village as the basic economic unit in Europe, new business methods used for investing money, speeding flow of wealth, and reducing risks in commercial ventures. these changes were part of the _________ ______
Commercial Revolution
which explorer suggested columbus had discovered the "New World" and where was he from?
Amerigo Vespucci (Italy)(America named after him)
where did Dutch East India Company set up headquarters?
at batavia on island of java in present day indonesia
agreement to move the line of demarcation farther west
Treaty of Tordesillas
true/false: from the time of the black death in mid-1300s, European population declined. it used to be 100 mil. in 1450, and became 55 mil. in 1650
false. the pop. grew from 55 to 100. mil.
imaginary line down the middle of Atlantic from north to south pole. spain had control of lands to the west of the line, portugal to the east.
line of demarcation
during what time period was dutch power the greatest?
where was the first place columbus went ashore?
the Bahamas
what did hernando de soto and francisco vasques de coronado do?
de soto reahced mississippi river and de coronado explored grand canyon (both from spain)
what other countries did he explore? where did he think he had landed?
Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) and Cuba. he thought he was in india.
why did the european govt. sometimes provide relief to the poor?
it believed a stron nation needed healthy workers and soldiers
which explorers faced mutiny from their ships?
columbus and magellan
organizations that sold stock, or shares, in the venture, enabling large and small investors to share the profits and trisks of a trading voyage.
joint stock companies
most profitable English colony b/c of sugar plantations
what did magellan's voyage accomplish?
-found a narrow water passageway called it Strait of Magellan,
-renamed the South Sea to the Pacific Ocean
-circumnavigation (proving the world was round and the lands discovered by columbus weren't part of asia)
true/false: in first 50 yrs under spanish control, inca population lost 6 mil. people
true, b/c they weren't immune to european diseases like smallpox, measles, and influenza
which of Columbus's 3 ships sighted land first.
the Pinta
Dutch farmers who settled at Cape of Good Hope to provide food and water for sailing ships
reasons for european exploration
search of a better trade route to asia, desire for gold, and glory, and to spread Christianity.
Italian captain hired by french to find a northwest passage thru america to asia..but had no success
Giovanni da Verrazano
sailed to India but couldn't encourage muslim and hindu merchants to trade w/them.
Vasco da Gama (Portugal)
what did the govt. use overseas colonies for?
for a dumping ground for poor, criminals, and other social outcasts.
what is one of the main reasons the europeans searched for an overseas route to asia?
b/c it mainly controlled the spice trade, and it was no longer safe for traders to go overland.
rich banking families in 1500s who loaned money as part of their operations..the also accepted deposits, made loans, and transferred funds over long distances. by 1600s tho, govt. chartered banks replaced these families.
Medici of Florence, Italy, and Fuggers of Augsburg, Germany.
had triangle shaped lateen sails, multiple masts allowing more speed, could carry up to 130 tons, could carry rifles and cannons.
why were 1600's the golden age for netherlands?
dutch ships efficient, carried more cargo and smaller crews than other ships, amsterdam became world's largest commercial city, dutch enjoyed world's largest standard of living.
only part of S. America that belonged to Portugal, b/c Cabral had claimed it.
egyptian astronomer who introduced the grid system of maps based on latitude and longitude.
by 1600's spain's empire included islands in....
west indies, central america, much of s. america, and parts of US. (spain more interested in est. colonies than trading settlements)
who brought together mapmakers, mathematicians, and astronomers to study navigation, but wasn't a sailor himself? and what country is he from?
Prince Henry the Navigator from Portugal(his explorers found the Azores, the Madeira Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands)
which priest tried to protect Native Americans from being abused by the Spanish?
Bartolome de Las Casas.
first european country to go out on atlantic ocean in search of spices and gold
who were conquistadors and what was there purpose?
Spanish explorers who came to convert people and become rich.
found the Cape of Good Hope and proved that ships could reach East Asia by sailing around Africa
Bartholomeu Dias (from portugal)
French mapmaker who found Quebec
Samuel de Champlain
Spanish rulers who sponsored Colombus's voyage.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (the queen agreed)
the usual means of exchange
French navigator who sailed up St. Lawrence River to Montreal and claimed much of eastern canada for france
Jacques Cartier
conquistador who left cuba for mexico for gold, landed on Tenochtitlan (aztec capital), fought w/aztec..and eventually ruled mexico
Hernan Cortes
dutch govt. gave this company a monopoly in trade w/Africa and East Indies and gave it the power to make war, seize foreign ships, coin money, and est. colonies and forts. In return govt. received customs duties (taxes) on imported goods from company's t
Dutch East India Company
in the 1600s, the greates increase in business activity took place in these countries, b/c they had the largest colonial empires. Italian cities were dut out of overseas trade.
countries bordering the Atlantic ocean (portugal, spain, england, and netherlands)
purpose of colonies
sources of raw materials and vital markets for finished goods provided by parent country; helped make parent country self-sufficient
true/false: by 1497, enland was interested in overseas trade.
nations exporting more goods than they imported (more money intake than outake)
balance of trade
gold and silver, used to measure a nations wealth (the more bullion a nation had..the richer it was)
a new theory that a state's power depended on its wealth...thus the goal of every nation was to become as wealthy as possible.
who prospered the most from the trade and colonial expansion of the Commercial Revolution, living better than the princes of a few centuries earlier.
aztec ruler at the time cortes invaded mexico
Montezuma II
individuals who combined money, ideas, raw materials, and labor to make goods and profits.
what was life like for European peasants?
they worked like animals, liven in hovels, and survived ona diet of water, black bread, and roots.
sea captain who was the first englishman to circumnavigate the globe.
Francis Drake
first permanent French settlement in Americas
missionaries who explored the Mississippi Valley in 1673
Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
claimed the entire inland region surrounding the Mississippi River for France
Rovert Cavelier (Sieur de La Salle)
Italian born navigator commisioned by henry vii, to find a northern route to area reached by columbus
John Cabot (explored Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New England..gave england a claim in americas)
in west indies, english fuond settlements on the islands of..
Jamaica, the Bahamas, and Barbados
first permanent english settlement
the Middle Passage
enslavaed person's journey from west coast of africa to americas
portugal mainly interested in...
Africa, Asia, trade rather than colonization.
triangular trade
ships sailed the legs of triangle formed by europe, africa, and americas.
-explorer who led 13 ships to Calicut and won a trade war w/muslim merchants and defeated Arab fleet to establish portugese control of indian ocean
Pedro Alvares Cabral
English navigator who claimed land for Dutch along Atlantic coast of N. America and in 1621 the govt. chartered the Dutch West India Co. to est. colonies in Americas.
Henry Hudson
portugese built naval bases along indian ocean, persian gulf, southeast asia, controlled shipping in indian ocean, expanded eastward toward moluccas (spice islands), and established trading ports where?
in china and japan (sorry..really long question..but has a lot of info. that might be important)
who did pizarro capture...take ransom for, and then execute?
the inca leader...Atuhualpa
what are some reasons people came to the Americas?
economic pressure, wars, and religious persecution b/c spanish barred non-spaniards and french banned huguenots (french protestants)
conquistador who invaded Inca empire in present day peru
Francisco Pizarro

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