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Western Civilization 2


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Foundations of Modern Capitalism
feudalism had existed before this, at this time, land began to be more privately owned - nobles would sell off their land to private ownership to pay off their own debts - there was an excess of labor and production thanks to technical innovations at the time (better ploughs, crop rotation)which led to an increase in women's health and subsequently their babies as well - so the excess goods produced were transferred to the market and able to be sold. Use of $ at this time increased, as bartering began to fade away - Business, Law and Trade organizations made an appearance - people were beginning to make their own decisions about their own $ - moreso in the well poplulated cities where this was happening. Obvious *HS*
3 centuries of conquest, imperial project goals changed over time, explorers, missionaries, merchants and soldiers all played a role, and in the 16th century - a commercial empire was set up in the east - Africa, India, S.Asia and a colony in Brazil
Council of Trent
called by Pope Paul III during the Catholic Reformation, it was a big meeting of the head leaders in the church to dicuss spreading the new reformations.
Ming Dynasty
lasted until 1644 - they stabilized the government and defended their homeland against invasion for the majority of 3 centuries - however they had a tendency to perpetuate misfortune by clinging to tradition and trying to block all foreign influences - this can be seen in the declining status of women in this era- Ming rulers were very resistent to innovation- there were many artists and architects during this period producing great quantities of high-quality work - but it generally lacked originality - the Ming regime steadily weakened after the middle of the 15th century
Medici Family
at the height of their empire during the economic revival, this family had bank branches all over Europe, they had many diversified interests as well, such as: being political bosses of Florence, at one time having a family member occupy the positions of Duke,Queen,&Pope, and they had art interests and were patrons of humanistic education. (Italy)
Christine de Pisan
"The Book of the City of Ladies." In this book, she argued against women's inferiority to men, the Catholic church and whether or not women had right to rule in France - she claimed women were more virtuous than men - she was of the aristocracy and had access to humanistic education
Great Britain
after 1688, they were the major liberal power with commercial, imperial and NAVAL dominance they were the rulers of the seas- this was also a time of revolution - Oliver Cromwell - resulting in more of a representative government
Turco-Mongol ruler of Kabul whose name means "the tiger"
*HS* compiled his memoirs - which were tales of triumphs and losses that reveal him as a straightforward narrator who built gardens whereever he went, paid careful attention to geography, was solicitous of his mother, and seemed to enjoy good wine and a good fight - he also loved to compose poetry- found his culture superior to other peoples
God as a Motivation for Exploration
source of inspiration - such as for the Conquistadors - also for the Jesuit Order who travelled to interact with the world and different cultures - interested in learning and teaching
Ferdinand and Isabella
married in 1469, the marriage was arranged by the families in Aragon (F) and Castile (I) for the sole purpose of uniting the Iberian Peninsula = Spain. Their monarchy was one of the most successful - strong leaders with a strong central government, Freed Grenada in 1492 and sent out Columbus to explore - they had five children, none of which were great rulers. *HS* sending out of Columbus led to "Discovery" of the Americas
Smaller in territory than a nation state (like U.S.) but still runs independently
instrument that measures the distance between the sun and horizon - it can establish latitude and longitude -*HS* this led to better map making
Caravels and Galleons
two types of ships that were utilized for exploration
Caravels - Portugal
Galleons - Spain
Money as a Motivation for Exploration
accumulation of wealth, gained power with wealth, primarily in search of gold and silver, of which the Aztecs and Incas didn't understand the value, jewels from India, spices, silks from India and W. Indies, rice, sugar and tobacco plantations, fish and fur trapping *HS* this wealth extracted by Spain in the new world made them the riches
concentrated more westward in their explorations - to Latin America, North, South, and Central America - Gulf Coast, Caribbean and Florida
Fernando Cortez
used the cosmavision of the Aztecs against them - they had a vision that bearded men from the East would come and their civilization would die -he used this prophecy against them - in 1521 Cortez overtakes present day Mexico City
Spanish soldiers who fought the Moors in Spain and then carried on tradition - looked to create settlements - began in Caribbean and ended South of Mexico - 3 factors helping the Conq. defeat the Aztecs (in Latin America)-they built alliances with outlying tribes of the Aztecs, diseases, and the cosmavision of the Aztecs. The Conquistadors were eventually filtered out and replaced by Generals, etc who ruled the colonies
Francisco Pizarro and the Incas
Man who studied Cortez and used this knowledge to conquer the Incas - but they had a different cosmavision and they fought back - they were in the midst of a civil war when Pizarro arrived
Settlement Empire
Ex. British, French, Spanish
interested in conquest and control - there is also an emerging race issue that was used to justify subordinating native peoples in the areas that were settled
Vasco de Gama
portugese man who reached India in 1498 - he was not very successful with Muslim merchants
Dutch East India Company
the Dutch were much smarter in their explorations and worked WITH people and were also selective about their trade items, which in turn, made the Dutch East India Co. very efficient and profitable - the Dutch handled most of Europe's trade throughout the 17th Cent
Alffonso de Albuquerque
followed de Gama and was more successful - he used force, ships, and outposts to control the Indian Ocean
Trading Empire
Ex. Portugal
only interest is in trading, left the society intact
Joint Stock Company
a grp of individuals coming together and pooling their resources to take on a large commercial prospect.
Ex. Virginia Company
-many non-aristocratic people were making $ and went to the gov't for aid if their trade was threatened - gov't responded with protective tariffs, etc
Long Range Consequences of Imperial Expansionism
It was not mutually beneficial to all those involved, it was all for the benefit of the imperialist nation - not the colonies- also things like Syphallus was spread around the New World
Columbian Exchange
headed by David Crosby - Sunflower seeds, cranberries, and blueberries - there were no large animals in Central America that were sources of protein - they are Chihuahuas
The European State System
the climax of the Age of Kings and Queens, a transition period into a new age and there were 2 main accomplishments - a significant increase in the power of Europeans to impost will on the rest of the world and the Development of ideas and trends that drastically changed the way that people thought and lived. Ideas of enlightenment, popular ideological revolutions, industry grows and the middle class rises in this period.
Balance of Power
during this early modern period in the 17th & 18th centuries, there was a balance of power among the five great powers - Britain, France, and Austria (all of whom had deep roots in the middle ages) and Prussia and Russia who were both newcomers
on the scene. The balance of power kept everyone at an equal status and no one was allowed to get bigger or better than anyone else - this concept finally died in Europe in 1946
belief in the right of the individual
Martin Luther
1483-1546 - Middle class, educated man, who was a devout Christian and devoted Catholic. He saw church getting richer and more corrupt - remmebered for his 95 Thesis. He attacked 3 main areas of Cath. and believed that true Salvation occured through faith. *HS* his ideas gave way to the Lutheran Church.
most powerful under the Bourbon rule, Louis 14th (the Sun King)- there was agricultural, commercial and industrial growth as the population grew in France- the existing high culture in France was imitated elsewhere and there were also lots of thinkers in France at this time.
Humanists were scholars who studied classical literature in contrast with all things divine. A group of men who wanted to translate Latin classics (the Greek Classics.*HS* gave birth to liberal arts education, *HS* they recovered most of Greek & Roman lit. and produced 1st literate Aristocracy in Europe in 10 centuries.
Economic Revival
Europe had hit a low economic point from the loss of good leadership within the Catholic
Church. Heart of the activity was within the cities, as people improved methods of minting coins, double-entry bookeeping began, *HS* could be considered to be the foundation of modern capitalism.
Protestant Reformation
A search for change within the church - many had grievances with the current situation. Among them were Martin Luther and John Calvin.
*HS* led to Lutheranism and Calvinism.
Monarchs who dictated that questioning the monarch is treason, and that everything the king says is what goes- good example - Sun King who never once summoned this Estates General and never really embraced idea of individual rights
Oliver Cromwell
a Puritan who was a squire from the country - from 1649 -1660, Cromwell was Lord Protector in England- and he had Charles I beheaded because The English peoples would not tolerate absolutism
established under Louis 14th, they were placed throughout France in order to collect taxes, enforce law and to conscript for the army
Holy Roman Empire in Austria
Most influential Family - Hapsburgs - Maria Theresa (1740-1780) ruled here and was considered to be one of the Most Enlightened in this period - she reformed the Catholic Church and reformed all of the administrations within her empire - soldiers and beurocrats were very critical to this empire
Brandenburg-Prussia - the Hohenzollern Dynasty and the Junker Aristocracy -
1640-1688 Frederick William - had a goal of uniting German territories and controlling (ruling) that resulting nation
he found allies within the Junker class - ambitious aristocrats
1740-1786 Frederick 2nd - he was a great military general and battled mostly with Austria (Maria Theresa) but only obtained a small piece of Austria - again - soldiers and beurocrats are very critical to this empire (same as in Austria)
95 Thesis
1517 - Martin Luther tacked this document to the door of the Church at Wittenburg - it called for public debate on issues involving sale of indulgences and other related theological questions.
greatest land mass, but least modern and least developed
Peter the Great 1682-1725
said he would drag Russia into the modern world whether they liked it or not - use of military force, he was the most colorful of all of the czars- he was a massive human being with a bad temper - he pressed the royal power in Russia harder than any previous Czar - forced peasants into labor and conscription and increased taxation - he had good aspects as well - huge bureacracy, powerful army and founded a navy
Querelle de Femme
the feminine question
some people during this time period (late 1600's) felt that equality did exist between men and women and others felt that women were men's counterparts - complete opposites - and that was for a purpose of keeping a balance in life- if man is black then woman is white if man is low then woman is high
John Calvin
Protestan Reformer from France. He was an aristocrat
and a humanist who set up a theocracy in Geneva - the Swiss Alps - a gov't based on religious principles - he was very militant - a man of action- and believed in the predestination of every soul.
*HS* although the religion made some gains, it is most significant in preparing for later aggressive action.
Savafid Persia
had its origins in an Islamic Sufi order founded by Safi... and one of Safi's decendents was Shah Ismail who gathered an army of devoted followers and began a series of campaigns that united Persia and conquered Iraq - posing a challenge to the Ottomans - Ismail was also the head of a Shi'ite Muslim sect - some people thought of the Savafids as barbarians
Mughul India
In Southeast Asia - it was ruled by a Turkic dynasty - with a population that was predominantly Hindu - ruled by Babur, then Humayun, then Akbar the Great
Ottoman Turks
most powerful of the Muslim Empires - centered in Anatolia with a great military might - founder of the Ottoman line was called Osman - golden age was from 1520-1566 under ruler Suleiman - who was the most feared among generation of monarchs including Henry 8, Francis I, and Charles V - *HS* used resources and military to be come one of great imperial powers of that age and even Europeans were impressed by their resources and taxation capabilities - the Ottomans were Sunni Muslims also - who often were in conflict with the Shi'ite Muslims in Persia
Period after the High Middle Ages from 1500-1530, name meaning "rebirth." Women and men educated, *HS* saw rise of internat'l banking for first time and the rise of the clerk class.
Catholic Reformation
led by Pope Paul III, it was a reform on the papal court, established a board of censors (for books), est. a new order of friars called the Jesuits, and Pope Paul called the "Council of Trent." *HS* many religious wars occur as a result of this
William Shakespeare
Supreme figure in Elizabethan literature and perhaps in all Western lit. - he wrote 37 plays - which were comedies, histories, tragedies, and romances - Shakespeare possessed in abundance the Renaissance concern for human beings and the world around them
Akbar the Great
grandson of Babur, he was 14
years old when he succeeded his father - he united northern India, advanced against the sultanates in the south of the continent, and presided over a glorious courtly culture - ruled over a large empire consisting of 100 to 150 million Mughul subjects *HS* he adapted the Islamic state to the conditions of ruling a non-Muslim population - by which he promoted cultural synthesis, incorporated Hindus into inner workings of the Gov't and showed himself to be a pragmatic monarch - he also abolished the "jizya" which was a special head tax on non-Muslims - he also stopped taxing Hindu pilgrims and financed the construction of Hindu temples
est. under Pope Paul III, the order of friars was called the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits - they are the big humanist educators of the Catholic church and *HS* still exist today.
full name - Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)- his masterpiece was the Spanish satire "Don Quixote de la Mancha" which was a parody of chivalric romances - the knight of woeful countenance -
Dutch humanist who was the most influential and cosmopolitan of the northern humanists and he corresponded with nearly every prominent writer and thinker in Europe -he was THE scholar of Europe and his writings were eagerly read everywhere - perhaps his most famous and influential work was "The Praise of Folly"
The Yi Dynasty - began in 1392 and lasted until 1910 - early Monarchs carried out a revolution against elitists of the old regime - created a new land register, abolished feudal relations in the armed forces, eliminated many Buddhist priviledges and created a new bureacracy made up of military leaders and scholars - they made Confucianism the state religion
Black Death
aka Bubonic Plague (outbreak during economic low period of 1350-1450), caused massive depopulation in Europe, which didn't recover until 1500. A flea would infect a rat,which would bite a person and they would get the plague- it caused sores all over the body and is where the song "Ring around the Rosy" came from.

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