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History Final :(


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named after martin luther who initiated the protestant reformation during the early 1500s. wanted to place more emphasis on bible because Catholic practices did not have a lot of bible meaning behind them.
Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy)
1309-1377, long residence of popes in Avignon. Bonafice 8th is pope in 1305 has trouble with french. stays in Avignon because of political problems with France. Babylonian capture it.
Hundred Years War
1337-1453. Between england and france. French won after many battles of war and periods of peace.
Great Western Schism
1378-1417. French get mad because they say that romans are electing unfairly. move papacy to avignon and elect another pope. some spanish dude says he is pope.
Fall of Constantinople
1453. Ottoman turks take over it and have control until the end of the 1st world war.
Ottoman Turks
Control much of the middle east until end of WWI. Take over constantinople.
Suleiman the Magnificent
1520-1566 longest ruler of ottoman empire.
Battle of Mohace
1526. Battle in present day Hungary, Ottoman turks win.
The most high absolute power over the citizens in a common wealth. introduced by jean bodin who wrote 6 book of the republic.
Jean Bodin
Introduced the idea of sovereignty and wrote the 6 books of the republic.
Francis I, valoise
1515-47. growth of government officials doubled while in reign. From valoise family, promoted political authority.
Henry VIII, tudor
Had a lot of wives. 1504-47. gov\'t breaks away from church because Henry wants to divorce his wife. Increases political authority
Ferdinand and Isabella
Reunited 2 kingdoms of spanish. married in 1469 came to power in 79. Isabella dies in 1504 Ferdinand reigns until 1516. Last muslim group conquered under them.
Juan Luis Vives
created 1st welfare program. Vives wrote on Subvention of the poor
Florin ducat
currancy of flourance and currancy of venice
Charles I of Spain
Reigns from 1515 to 1566. Same guy as Charles the 5. FATHER\'S HERO. Ruled spain and roman empire. known for opposing protestant reformation.
Same guy as Charles I which is the same guy as charles V.
Price Revolution
High rate of inflation during the second half of the 15th century over western europe.
all goods coming from Italy stop here before going to other places. commercial and economic center of europe. extreme urbanization in 16th century
capital of Portugal port city. leading economic city. trade hub.
economic hub of spain. became urbanized.
first bank in Europe. created during the late 14th century.
bill of exchange
economic system in europe during the 14th century. consisted of 2 parts: currency exchange and a loan. enables you to go to Medici to get money.
Joint Stock Company
Developed in the late 14th century. Realized that could make more money if everybody put in money for goods versus one person doing individual work. provides storage and shipping for goods. exerts quality and price control. biggest one was british east india company.
domestic or putting out system
before joint stock companies. individual works.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Brother of proteguse king and established a research institute in the early 15th century
vasco de gama
1498. traveled after colombus. goes all the way to India by sailing around the coast of Africa establishes a portegese port there.
vasco de gama created a city here and it was small but an economic hub
Vasco de gama pushes into here in present day singapore.
fortified trading post. Europeans were not interested in colonies that this time but wanted trade and domination of the sea
Said that you could sail to the indies by going west. thought he reached it, but reached N. America. Had to go to Spain after several failed attempts to get approved to sail. landed at North America with no useable trade at the time.
Santo Domingo
1492 city founded by Colombus in east indies. oldest European city in America.
Ferdinand Magellan
Sailed around the world. but he died in the phillipenes before getting back to Europe
Amerigo Vespeice
Sailed around South America. Americas were named after him.
Northwest passage
Thought that above North America there was a passage that could get you into Americas. Fail.
Giovanni da Verrazano
sailed up the Hudson river looking for Northwest passage. fail.
Hernando Cortez
1520-1550 spanish nobleman wants to bring feudalism to the new world. had many adventures.
Francisco Pizarro
conquered the Incan Empire. went to America
city in bolivia with silver mines...
one of first scholars of renaissance, considered the father of humanism 1304-1374
main scholarly in renaissance 3 main meanings: 1. enthusiastic in scholarly study 2. well rounded citizen focus on grammer, language, rhetoric 3. greater historical consciousness
Erasmus of Robberdam, Prince of Humanists
Considered prince of humanists praise of folly is his most famous work
Johann Gutenberg
created printing press in 1439. published first printed version of old testament. in latin
Gutenberg bible
was first printed version of old testament in latin. 42 lines published around 1450s
a book or piece of paper that is printed and NOT HAND WRITTEN
flat style of painting. gold background.
Sandro Botticelli
lived 1445 to 1510 had no followers. painted people with way long arms and necks because thought they were beautiful. painted the birth of venus.
lived 1483 to 1520. painted the school of athens which was a balance between ancient world and the christian renaissance. LOVED THOSE REDS.
1475 to 1564 painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Showing god is at work in Christian, jewish, pagan world and his plan for the world. no one place where you can see everything
created during the early 1500s by a few people, but the most well known is calvin. this is basically known as biblical Christianity. Now also known as Huguenots, Presbyterians and puritans
based off of the latin term meaning english church. known as the scripture religion because based strongly off of the scriptures. also the history of English Christianity.
A protestant religion formed out of the radical reformation time period. Did not believe in wedding rings, or many of the other traditions of the Christian church. Interpret sermon on the mount literally as well as believer\'s baptism.
Catholic Reform also known as counter reformation
Begins with the council of trent in mid 1500s, and ends with the 30 years war in mid 1600s.tried to bring Catholicism back into popularity. Trained many new priests and taught traditions of the church.
Council of Trent
1545-1563 redefined church teachings. as a reaction to all of the protestant reformations taking place. Pope said that Vatican II would be like the council of trent.
created by Ignatius. of Loyola. Also known as society of jesus. branch off of Catholic religion. Based off of education, and missionary work, and cultural pursuits as well.
Scientific Revolution
1543-1687. the origins of modern science. associated with renaissance. destructed the greek notion of the universe and replaced it with new versions of the universe with heavenly bodies in motion in space. ACCORDING TO MATH.
4th century bc. Geocentric universe with earth in center. consisted of 9 circular orbits, moon was closet, and farthest was stars. it ended because rest of it was heaven.
revised Aristotle\'s ideas of the universe in 2 ad. said there is a division between below the moon and above. everything above moon is perfect. 4 elements and two kinds of movement.
1473- 1543. said that sun was at center of the universe. earth rotates once daily on its axis. why are we not moving?
1571-1630. first three laws of science applied to heavens. heavens rotate elliptically around sun. used really complicated math for these laws.
1564-1642. Wrote the starry messenger in 1610. knew about kepler, but discarded his ideas. 1st person to look out of telescope into the heavens. went against the idea that heavens do not change. developed law of inertia. worked out law of falling bodies. 1st person to use the scientific method.
Isaac Newton
1642-1727 Put all three peoples\' ideas together, including the three laws of universal motion, and universal gravitation.

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