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Berlin Conference
Conference where Europeans divided up Africa, set rules regarding to colonization, didn't involve Africans
Suez Canal
connects the Red sea and the Mediterranean sea so you wouldn’t have to travel all the way around Africa, many different western countries wanted to control the area around the suez canal
Pilgramige from Mecca to Medina, made by Muhammad
written works of islam
becomes leader of Pakistan
Becomes leader of India
Pakistan (context of indian independence)
Pakistan formed when India gained independence so the muslims and hindus could be separated. Conflict was so great that separated the two groups.
east india trading company
formed foundation for British colonialism in India. paved way to colonizaiton.formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading with the Indian subcontinent and China.
Siddhartha Gautama
Buddha, Founder of Buddhism
5 pillars of islam
Haj Prayer 1 god Alms Fasting
free from suffering and the cycle of rebirth
“Three Baskets of Wisdom”): Buddhist scriptures
holy city of Islam; where Muhammed was banned from for teaching monotheistic religious views
determines if you are closer to achieving moksha, is a reflection of your actions in your previous life
David Livingston and Morton Stanley
lewis and clark of africa
Nationalism, but is extreme. More like a feeling of superiority, taking action
gold and salt trade (in the context of ancient Africa):
gold and salt were resources traded by ancient African civilizations. they helped said civilizations grow and gain wealth
European (especially British) efforts to end the slave trade (in the context of African colonization)
protestant missionaries wanted to end slavery, europeans wanted possession of raw materials (industrial revolution)
Amristar Massacre
british indian army open fire on an unarmed group of men, women and children, strengthened the independence movement, brought other countries on their side, but did not retaliate violently, remained nonviolent
Mansa Musa (Mali empire):
Spread Islam throughout Africa, brought trade and wealth and created an empire, close ties with middle east
"white man's burden"
Racist poem, saying that it is the white man's job to bring civilization to Africa
ganges river
-a river in China that causes dangerous and potentially deadly flooding which leads to the creation of the Three Gorges Dam. Also i think many civilizations developed around it
Fashoda Incident
England and France conflicting in colonization territory, settled it but once again did not involve Africans
Pakistan, India, or on own? Highly debated and fought for
rules based off of sayings by Confucius
want to find natural way, few rules
people need rules, strict rules
loyalty in exchange for land or power
silk road
trade route that was used in Asia; main trade product obviously
mandate from heaven
is a sign to mark the begining of a leader's rule or an ending; for example, a river flooding would be the ending
Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan
Mongols ruling China, another example of people who live in a place not ruling themselves, like the british and french mandates.
civil service system (in chinese dynasties)
is a civilian public sector employee working for a government department or agency. The term explicitly excludes the armed services, although civilian officials will work at "Defence Ministry" headquarters. The term always includes the (sovereign) state's employees; whether regional, or sub-state, or even municipal employees are called "civil servants" varies from country to country.
great wall of china
showed China dynasty's strength
oracle bones
used to predict future, read cracks in bones
forbidden city
served as the home of the Emperor and his household, as well as the ceremonial and political centre of Chinese government; the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty
taiping rebellion
Rebellion of peasants, showed empires crumbling
Opium War and the Treaty of Nanjing
In India, sold to China o Balance in trade shifted because now China was importing products instead of exporting o Economy was disrupted, China losing money · Qing dynasty tried to stop British from trading opium o British wouldn’t stop trading (was helping their economy) o Chinese sunk a boat brining opium to China · Britain revolted with war Treaty of Nanjing · British told China how they were going to behave o Had to pay for the opium that sank o Had to open up ports for opium trade o Gave British rights to send in missionaries to convert people to Christianity o Extraterritoriality
spheres of influence
Colony like situations, other countries came in and took over areas controlling the trade and having extraterritoriality § Extraterritoriality: ú People can live in another country (ex: British in China) and follow their homeland’s laws (British follow British laws instead of Chinese)
boxer rebellion
Chinese karate people rebel against Westernism, lose b/c vs guns
open door policy
anyone can come in and colonize
Sun Yixian (Sun Yat Sen) and the “Three Principles of the People”
"Father of Modern China", capitalist, “Three principles of the People” o NATIONALSIM! § Unity (which China didn’t have at the time” o Democracy o Livelihood § Economic opportunity ú Make sure people get what they need economically
Jiang Jieshi
took Sun's place when died tried to kill of communists (which led to Long March) fled to Taiwan
nationalist party
non-communism, fled after communist reign began
Mao Zedong
Communist China, started Red Guard
Long March
Long retreat, about 100,000 communists retreated as they were attacked Jiang Showed equality to peasants and farmers Took care of villages that they marched through
Red Guard
Youth of China spreading communism
chinese civil war
War-Between mao and capitilist parties
great leap forward
Tried to unify China but also set ridiculously high standards for farm production
cultural revolution
Mao's attempt for the communist party to take over china and end the historical china and lead to a more modern china, without foreign influences
West china where Buddhism main religion, disputed territory
Tiannamen Square Uprising
Young Chinese students were protesting against communism, were for democracy. the chinese communist party came with tanks and guns and attacked the protesters. thousands of students were there, and people all over the world saw the incident
Disputed territory, where china's capitalists fled
Communism became more of a worship of Mao than a form of government. following of Mao and his beliefs
one child policy
People of China only allowed one child because of large population
three gorges dam
located in Chian; world's largest dam; highly desputed due to economical and political reason
“Peaceful rise” (in the context of China’s economic and foreign policy)
want to rise without conflict, rising fast, economic rise instead of military, want to rise quietly but hard b/c so fast
sumerian temple, steps, for gods
city states
larger than a village, smaller than an empire. own independent government, ruled by high priests
code of hammurabi
eye for an eye, laws, ordered society
shiite muslims
the smallest sect of Muslims; only decesdants of Muhammed can be the next prophet
sunni muslims
the largest sect of Muslims; any Muslim follower can be the next prophet
- means between rivers, area between the Euphrates and Tigris river, in the Fertile Crescent
ottoman empire
Muslim empire, fell, both allies and central powers wanted it
ancient form of writing, used clay and stylus, was used in Sumer
fertile crescent
area around the Euphrates and Tigris river, is fertile, many civilizations emerged
ancient middle eastern society
one early Mesopotamian empire, Hammurabi and his revolutionary ideas/thoughts/customs,
persian empire
bureaucracy/civil service legal system roads weights, measures, currency
-ruled the Babylonian Empire in the 1100s BC. His death causes the Chaldean Empire to crumble and fall 30 years after his death.
tigris and euphrates
abundant in resources so civilizations developed around it
abraham's covenant
Israel is promised land, Jews chosen people
David & Soloman
David unified Israel and built Jerusalem and started building Temple
written work of judaism
Jewish people left Israel and dispersed throughout the world
Original name of Israel, promised land
Allied Powers in WWI
France, Britain, against Germany.
British & French Mandates
(temporary control) didn't think it was right for unorganized gov't to just go free increased anti-westernism
Balfour Declaration
British announcement for British territoritory Jewish people should have the state AND Palestinians should not have the rights to their lands violated contradiction became a problem in 1940
muslim brotherhood
Arab nationalism, anti-westernism
jewish pride
Palastinian land was taken to create Israel, want it back
Islamic view to spread the faith; sometimes peaceful sometimes violent; 911 attacks, controversial 6th pillar
fixed mindset
-when you believe that people are born with the ability to either be great or poor at a skill and you cannot work to change that.
open mindset
when you believe that you are capable of learning to become better at something (i.e. school, sports, etc.)

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