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Foreign policy 1900


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building the canal
1) brutal conditions a. disease a carrying musquitos; malaria b. humidity c. frog at night that stopped sleeping 2) TR still remains optomistsic -most workers were African Americans or west Indian (from west Indies) 5) very dangerouse work
the benefits of the panama canal
a. 2 weeks shorter to get from ny to san Francisco b. helped connect he Atlantic to the pacific c. heightened us involvement n Latin America d. we have 2 military bases leased at each end e. we expanded our influence in those areas i. we bought islands in these times from the Danish ii. expand out infleucne in that part of the world
policing latin america
1) clevland starts by ending controvers between the british and venezuels off the cost if venezuela in Guiana (1895) a. the Monroe doctrin rejected thebritish taking over because it was against the Monroe doctrin, thus the US rejected them, they wanted someother type of deal b. so the us prevented the new colony fro the british byr had to help pay off th debt veneezuela had to britan 2) 1902 venezuela in trouble not paying loans back to England and Germany a. England and Germany wanted to take over venezuelas customs houses b. The US steps in under TR, reiderates the Monroe doctrine, instead the US took over the suctmsm houses and had the other countries got paid back 3) 1905 dominican republic under rosevelt by TR a. The US gain takes over the cutosms houses as well b. Thus US also comes out with the Roosevelt Corollary
dr william gorgas
drained swamps within a ten mile radius of panama concal work sites to lower disease
roosevelt corllary
→ in adition to the monroe doctrin a. The us had the right to intervene in latin American affairs b. Major shift in foreighn policy c. When conflict arises we are going to take the initiative to fix things i. It is big stick diplomacy
less forceful than TR is a. Calls for dollar diplomacy i. Depdends on the amount of money and nothing else b. Said it would cause stability and prosperity for the third world countries c. Wanted other countries to invest in south America i. Said it would gve local economies more jobs et.. ii. Also those who invested in those areas will also profit d. Does not happen→ instead we too all the natural resoures form latin america and leave them nothing e. Said that the US still had the right to step in if there was unrest and their investments were not safe f. Dollar diplomacy used in Latin America and the fare East→ had limited success g. Nicaragua in 1912 it has financial problems and there is a possibility of war i. Taft send in US marines in order to protect “what is ours” ii. They were not welcomes, but stayed until 1933 h. Taft encouraged investment in Asia as well i. We would fund a railroad that would help their economy but it would also help us
→ moral diplomacy 1) said that US investors could enter the country and destroy the resources and leave nothing for the people a. feels it leaves foreighn countrie sin a worse pposition that they were in before them i. investors get to much influence over the government 2) he declares that “the us will never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest” a. policy based on moral principles i. spread ideas of human rghts, democracy, and human rights ii. ideas of equality and other things b. but when oush comes to shove they all come back to big stick c. Wilson too sent marines to cuba, niceragua, and hatti, and Dominican Rep 3) 1915 foreighn countries threatened to intervine in hatti to make sure they got their debts repaid 4) mobs came up I hatti at this time to kill hatis president→ he sent in the marine a. by 1915 he runs customs houses making sure the billd get paid 5) 1916 the DR→ similar sent in marines → for next 8 years had martial law In the end taft and Wilson had their plans fail and thus they wnet back to big stick in the end
mexican revolution
-Mexico ruled by a dictator named Porfirio Diaz, he was dictator for over 30 years -Friend ot the US → encouraged foreign investment -Sold about 75 percent of mexicos mineral resources -Americans owned large amounts of mexican -Mines -Plantations -Factories -Three groups benefited, the americans, the mexcian business men, and the gov officials -in 1911 Francisco Madero and put in power -then more rebels shot and killed Madero and put Vicoriano Huerta into power -Wilson now need to decide if he lets it occur and stand by the new leader or if he will wadge war -Wilson does not recognize the new gov -“I will not recognize a government of butchers” -we begin to intervine with this goes to rebels -goes to VEnustiano Carranza and Pablo Villa -gives money and supplies to the rebels to overthrow them -also Mexicans arrest US sailors in mexico, they are let free, but Wilson demands an apology and 21 gun solute -they reject -thus Wilson goes into mexico with tons of sailors -us also starts to stop German ships that have guns with them from going into Mexico and rading the guns -finally we took over mexico city with the marines -Fuerta is overthrown, when he flees to spain, Carranza takes control -Now poncho vila and Carranza taking control -Carranza now has a new rial, → poncho Vila -Caranzza was pro American -Vila was anti American -Vial determined to oust caranzza and take control himself -In order to he provokes the US -take over a dozen of loyal men and went in to the us --Executed more than 12 American citizens off a train -Then his forces raided Columbus new mexico -Killed 17 more people -American public demands revenge on mexico -Americans order John Pershing→ black jack With us troops in to mexico -To bring back vial dead or alive -Vial is protected by the local villages in mexico -He is their hero -Thus Villa goes across the border and kills again -At one point war looks imminent→ but then both ides back down -They were never able to capture Villa
profirio diaz
dictator of mexico that offered lands to america
francesco madero
the second to be put in power in mexico during the mexican revolution
us attempts to be neutral in the war
1) August 4th 1914 Widrow Wilson offers proclamation of impartiality a. They had a policy to avoid involvement in European wars b. Wilson saw the US as an impartial mediator 2) But at this time 1/3 of the people in the US were immigrants at this time a. Here was an influx of irish (sided with the central powers) b. German Americans (largest foreign born group in the US at this time) 3) There was also the original US and England things together 4) Both England and Germany flooded the US with propoganda i. Mail ii. Telegraphs iii. Radio iv. Flyers from airplanes over cities b. Tried to influence US thought c. English gained advantage in the US when cut German telegraph lines to the US
uboat attacks
1) law says that any warship firing on merchnt shipmust be told before shooting and must save the people 2) the germans did not listen to this 3) the germand states that water around the islands of england are a war zone and that ships would be fired upon sight a. even neutral ships may be sunk i. the british had hidden boats with neutral flags
the lustania
1) british luxury liner that sailed from NY to England a. Germans said they suspected that the luxury liner was carrying contraband b. said that if they saw the ship they would sink it (had taken out an ad in NYT saying they would sink the ship) i. they sunk it (may 7th 1915) c. killed 1200 people d. 128 US citizens e. Germans apologized, offered to pay war damages, but would not give up on the u boat fighting
us starts to prepare for war
1) Wilson said that he was a pacifist but if war came that the country needed more tax money a. march 1916 a French vessel known as the Sussix was torpedoed i. frecnch vessel with American citizens b. caused an break in the deadlock in congress thus an increase in the army and the navy→ also gain funds to do so c. after it is sunk gives a threat to Germany saying that if they don’t stop torpedoeing the merchant ships, then they would brake off talks with Germany
national defense act of 1916
more than doubled the size of the army
naval appropriation bill of 1916
set ship builders to work→ increased the size of the navy
council of national defense 1916
set up to prepare the nations industries and infrastructure in order to make war time goods
the zimmerman telegram
1) 1917 the garmans announced they wuld return to submarine war fare hoping to end the war before getting us got involved 2) england had gotten hold of a message from the german minister to mexico→ the Zimmerman telegram/ note a. minister to Mexico from German b. suggested a German Mexican alliance if the US entered the war i. if the central powers were to win and the US had to get peace 1. Mexico would recover new MEXICO, TEXAS, ARIZONA ii. The Zimmerman note open up a new group of peoep→ the south west of the US→ now want war 1. Scared of being ousted out of their land 3) Coupled note with lusitania and the succix--. Brings them to war
alexandar kerenski
replaced the Czar w/ a democratic gov
Russia drops out
Russian revolutionaries over the Zar Nicholas 2nd and replaced him with a democratic government led by Alexander Kerensky 1) it was a provintial government a. lasts 7 months (kayas in Russia) b. one of the allied countries dropping out of the war 2) final straw→ causes the US to enter the war
trench warfare
may different parts a. hid by day and burrowed by night b. the trench line was 600 miles by the end of the war c. behind the trenches were network supplies and all things needed d. no mans land in between
new weapons
a. chlorine b. mustard gas c. gas floated into the trenches i. choaking ii. blinding iii. killing d. caused the gas mask 3) never before had so many people died so quickly a. causes a lot of casualties 4) machine guns 5) tanks 6) plains -beginning of modern war
1918 the treaty of Bresk-Litovsk
1) between the Germans and Russia a. give tons of land to the germans 2) frees up an antire front against, thus they can bring more troops to other front
German attempt to take over france
1) posed to take over paris 2) then the Americans came (the dough boys) 3) undert leadership of Black Jack Pershing a. combined forces under him and Foch (nine maerican divisions and 3 french) push the germans back into a northward retreat i. over 3000 field guns ii. 14000 airplanes iii. 267 tanks b. all counter attack the germans
St. Minel
-first am involved battlea. bombs b. machine guns→ in full use at this time c. used airplanes and field guns to blomb st Mihiel int oblivion d. tabnks rolled into german trenches taking soldiers
Sedan rr
a. gemans gert their supplies through here i. haveto go through the Argonne forest
Argonne forest battle
a. the germans had trapped this i. mines ii. machine gun nests iii. hiding places all over b. the Americans eventually forge through and this take the Oregon railroad 7) after this the germand began to rumble all along the western border
ending the fighting
1) September 1918 the ottoman empre and Austria Hungry signed an armasist a. November 11th 1918 the germans also signed the armisist b. This tending WWI c. Dont have a peace treaty but he actual fighting has ended
wilsons 14 point plan
a. points 1-5 i. designed to remove the causes of the conflicts 1. nations to openly practice diplomacy 2. ship allowed to move on ocean during ear times and not 3. tariff barriers removed from all of Europe (free trade) a. bring countries together economically 4. reduce the number of arms and arm production a. demilitarization 5. claims on colonies settled impartially in the colonies best interests b. points 6-13 i. deal with self determination 1. the protection of natural boundaries within states, colonies 2. self determination I the right of the people to be independent or to decide the type of government they have a. says have to get rid of colonialism ii. Wilson saw this as curtail to protecting groups that were oppressed under foreign rulers c. point 14 i. the league of nations
the league of nations
ii. the key to a permanent peace→ a general association of independent nations that would have the power to 1. guarantee the independence and land of all states 2. power to maintain peace 3. settle disputes between its member nations 4. use economic aspect to hurt an aggressive country a. could stop trade with an aggressor (like Germany)
response to the 14 point plan
a. the allies had a different at what happened (they had been in the war longer) b. hey don’t want to accept freedom of the seas (England) c. want reparations for war damages 3) the US begins to take a role in foreign affairs at this time a. question is are we able t take this power at this time b. only brought democrats to the peace conference, so repub alienated i. so repub brought up ideas of isolationism 4) 2 reason why it doesn’t work a. Europe not ready to accept it b. Wilson fails to gett he repub on his side→ fails in the US
George clemenceau
represented France when writing the treaty and wanted a buffer between france and germany
David lloyd george
England (wants to keep control of the waters)
Vittorio Orlando
Italy (land they were promised)
woodrow wilson
the US (want he leageue of nation)
all the europeans want
a. Reperations b. Land c. Hurt Germany
the treaty of versaille
a. Eventually the league of nations is established, but it is not powerful b. Redraw the map of Europe i. the first time since poland was divided up, Poland was Mded INDEPENDENT AGAIN ii. astonia, Latvia, lithoania, finland→ all formally controlled by the Russians→ they are now independent iii. Austrian hungry empire is divided iv. Eugoslavia, Austria, hungry, checkoslovakia, and Romania→ all freed or are created v. Germany lost 1/8th of its territory
punishing germany
i. Stripped of all armed forces ii. Stripped of submarines iii. Have a shell army and navy→ cant be over 100,00 people iv. Had to pay war damages of 33 billion dollars v. This lost caused financial problems for Germany→ left them feeling humiliated 1. So bad that the germans almost did not sign because of the ridiculous terms
results of the treaty
a. A divided Europe b. A broken militarily Europe c. A stronger frnce and England d. A US that could take a huge role in foreighn policy, but decides not to

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