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anthro 153


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Swedish botanist, developed system of classification for all living things. Divided humans into sub-specie race categories: American, European, Asiatic, Negro (red, white, yellow, black). Tied personality traits to these races.
Robert Yerkes
developed alpha/beta intelligence test to apply on a mass scale to US army during WWI. Also tested immigrants. Test was used by eugenic movement to bar immigrants entry to the US. Later test shown to measure acculturation, not intelligence.
Lewis Henry Morgan
American archaeologist/anthropologist- theory of social evolution, unilineal cultural evolution- savagery to barbaraism to civilization. Tied social progress to technological progress.
Leclerc Buffon
)- French naturalist, monogenist, coined term ‘race’ as applied to humans. Previously applied to animals.
Sam stanhope smith
- American minister, monogenist, believed that racial differences were caused by environment (climate) changes. Believed skin color was a response to sunlight (basically an all-covering liver spot), and believed that non-whites would come to resemble whites if allowed to live in Europe for long enough.
german doctor, “father of physical anthropologh.”monogenist. Helped develop study of cranium. examined human craniums and came up with 5 different racial categories: Caucasian (white), Mongolian (yellow), Malayan (brown), negroid (black), American (red). Considered variation among human races to have been caused by climate, though could not propose any mechanism to support the theory.
Georges Cuvier
French naturalist. Introduced concept of catastrophism, proponent of mass extinctions to explain fossils.
Emmanuel Kant
german philosopher, monogenist. Predicted thicker bodies in cold climates.
accepted linnaeus’ classification. Believed in evolution—“acquired characteristics theory” (giraffes necks become long by repeated stretching).
French enlightenment writer/philosopher- polygenist—against concept of science of culture—racist. Jews, negros, etc. separate branch of humanity, inferior.
David Hume
Scottish philosopher—polygenist. Negro naturally inferior.
Edward Long
British colonial administrator, polygenist, wrote “history of Jamaica.” Super racist. Hated blacks. Saw them as stupid, savage, unable to grasp higher mechanics or develop art. Felt they had no redeeming human qualities. Separate species from Europeans.
Charles White
surgeon, polygenist, developed idea of ‘great chain of being.’ Saw blacks as closer to apes than Europeans.
Luis Agassiz
swiss-American zoologist. Polygenist. Came up with his own system of racial classification. Believed God created people in populations and put them in different places on the globe, purposefully. Believed it a waste of time/money to educate blacks and n. Americans.
Anders Retzius
Swedish professor, developed cephalic index system.
Franz Gall
german physiologist, founded german phrenology.
Charles Caldwell
physician and professor at Transylvania college, developed and taught phrenology in America.
Johan Spurzheim
Franz Gall’s student, further developed his mentor’s ideas of phrenology.
Paul Broca
physician, leader of French phrenology movement.
Samuel G Morton
polygenist, wrote “crania Americana” collected lots and lots of skulls. Bent findings to try and show that white race was superior. Claimed Egyptians were white, not of African descent.
Lambert Quetelet
Belgian astronomer and mathmetician, applied statistics to social studies… surveyed military members to find ‘average person.’ Developed body mass index.
Cesar Lombroso
Italian criminologist, influenced by eugenics and social Darwinism to come to the idea that criminal tendencies are inherited. Identified physical characteristics to indicate criminality: large jaws, high cheekbones, large chins, hawk-like noses or fleshy lips, baldness, shifty eyes, long arms⬦
Charles Lyell
Scottish geologist, famous for principle of uniformitarianism (earth is experiencing same geological processes today as it was a million years ago). Influenced Darwin.
Francis Galton
Eugenics pioneer, coined term ‘eugenics’. Created experiments with twins to study genetics and effect of environment. Supported positive eugenics.
Karl Pearson
mentored by Galton—also pushed/pioneered eugenics movement. Advocated negative eugenics (going to war with inferiors). Also invented correlation coefficient in statistics.
Charles Davenport
leader of American Eugenics movement- pushed pedigree analysis. Wrote ‘race crossing in Jamaica’- tried to show that interracial offspring were inferior. Held some ties with Nazi germany.
Henry H. Goddard
translated Binet’s intelligence test to English and mass-applied it to measure intelligence. Coined term ‘moron.’ Developed system of quantifying feeble-mindedness: ‘moron,’ ‘idiot,’ ‘imbecile.’ Applied intelligence test to immigrants at ellis island and found the vast majority of nearly all immigrants to be feeble-minded (scoring at the level of a 12 year old or below). Later stated that feeble-mindedness could be corrected.
Carleton coon
origin of races – mentored by Ernest Hooton—president of American association of physical anthropology in 1961
Sherwood Washburn
- criticized coon’s plygenist theory. Came up with “new physical anthropology,” which abandoned polygenicism. Focused on populations, not races.
Karl Landsteinder
developed classification of blood groups, discovered ABO blood types and Rh factor.
statistic of variability- used to analyze the genetic variation within a population. Humans shown to have a relatively low Fst value, indicating very low inter-species variability.
Mendelian deme
- group of individuals within which mating is more or less random
average fitness
(Wbar) = fAA x wAA + fAa x wAa + faa x w aa
Ernst Morch
Danish, discovered mode of mutation by studying dwarfism. Also invented pulmonary respirator.
Henry Shapiro
studied pitt-cairn island (Polynesian-christian fletcher ancestry) and found evidence showing human populations are too genetically similar to display heterosis.
Wahlund effect
- reduction in heterozygosity when a population is divided into subpopulations
Bentley Glass
American geneticist who studied genetic drift among ‘dunkers,’ religious isolated group in US- change in genes per generation

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