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Middle Eastern History 2


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1556-1605. Mughal Empire. Rajasthan remained under Hindu lords. East controlled by tributary tribes. Stat controlled by political/ military elite. Hindus form 20% of arsitocracy.
His though is framed by the chaos of the twelf century.
Al-Mansur al-Hallaj
922 Symbolic of antagonistic relationship with secular power. Hung at the Abbasid court for saying he was "god"(truth).
Defeated by Murshid-i Kamil. Turks and Ozbeg Turks in Khurasan
1658-1707 Akbars son. reputation for personal piety. member of Naqshbandi order. student of Islam.reversed policy of religious tolerance. 1659 forbade drinking, gambling, prostitution, opium. 1659 mission to sharif of Mecca. 1657-61 recognized by Imam al
Battle of Ayn Jalut


Mamluks (turkish slave army) defeat Mongols.

Marks the end of Mongol encroachment in Syria.


Battle of Kosovo
1389 Est Ottomans in the Bulkens
Battle of Lepanto


Cervantes(Spain, Venice, and Genoa)

Ottomans take over 

Battle of Panipat
Babur defeats Sultan Ibrahim Lodi in 1526.

son of Jochi.

Founder of Golden Horde.

Shiite Ismailis
Celali Revolts
Decommissioned peasant troops(armed peasantry) defeatimperial soldiers
Empire in Central Asia. Chingiz Khans successors/sons after 1227
Chingiz Khan
1206-1227 Universal Khan, tribal leader. 1209-Monguls invaded China(Beijing 1215).
Formal Collection of Children

Brother of Mongke.

1243- Given control of Iran.

1258- takes Baghdad.


1530-1556 Mughal Empire. loses punjab to brother. 1537 Sher Khan Sur conquers Bengal. 1539 Sher Khan Sur deposes Humayun. 1553 Th Sur domain is divided among sons. 1555 Humayun retakes Delhi.
Ibn Arabi
1240 Unity of Being The Mccan Revelations(All reality is a manifestation of God). Mecca is the branch between two realms(God and materials)
Consensus Four major legal scholars
Independent judgement
Ilkhaid Dynasty


Founded by Hulegu descendants.

Post Mongol Recovery.

Continuation of iqtaa(or tuyul in Iran).Final conversion of Mongols from Buddhism to Islam.


Ilm al Hadith
Science of Hadith(words and deeds of the Prophet)

Tax farming


1598 Site of royal patronage. creation of royal bazaars(markets). population transfers. (Commerce and trade) royal monopoly on trade. royal factories est. armenian christian merchants as middlemen. British support of trade. British assisst Shah against Po
Chain of transmission

Palace Service(Cultural Refinement)

Challenging Education


Chingiz Khans successors/sons 1227.

Sent West to Batu and Golden Horde.

Khwarazam Shah
Kills Mongol merchants and envoys in Transoxania.

Kubla Khan.

Rise in 1259.

Madad-i Ma'ash
Mughal land grants
Mansabdar system
Ranking Zat(how much money you make) and Sawar(How many people you bring at a time of war)
Mehmed II The conqueror
1451-1481 1453-conquered constantinople(Istanbul as capital city). 1456-Trabzon conquered 1463-1479(Ottoman-venetian war)
Millet System

Self governance in each community.

Justice system, jizya, representative for each community.


1241 Becomes great Khan.

1243 Defeats Rum Seljuqs.

Muhammad b Tughlug
1320-1413 Delhi Sultanate. Cultivated ties with Hindu community(Hindus in miltary, celebration of local festivities, permitted the construction of Hindu temples). Fostered Islamic Identity(supporter of sunni orthodoxy, emphasized identity as muslim ghaz
Reason. Free Will. The caliph Ma'mun 833
Becomes Great Khan in Mongolia and China. Chingiz Khans successors/sons after 1227
1281-1324 Ottoman. Son of Ertgrul. 1326 the capture of Bursa. 1345 capture of Gallpolli.
10th Century Analogy Ijtihad and Mujtihad(one capable of exercising Ijtihad)
Redheads(headgear). Safavid army.
Safavid Dynasty
Shaykh Safi al-Din(1252-1334) Sadr al Din(son)(1334-91) (Sunni Sufi religious leaders) Political Movement(Military) Attracted peasants artisians, tribal chiefs. Married into Turkish Uymaqs.Recruited from peasants and turkish tribes. Qizilbas(redheads)
Selim The Grim
1515-1520 1514- Battle of Chaldiran(Safavids are defeated). 1516-17; defeats the mamluks in Syria, Egypt, and the ijaz. 1517 Ottomans take Sawakin, Aden, Yemen.
Shah Abbas
The Great(1588-1629) Stabilizes eastern frontier. defeats ottoman army in west by 1607. Hormuz taken from the portugese in 1622(British Aid).Creation of slave army- ghulam- christian slaves. Rise of slave soldiers(salaried)
Shah Ismail
1487-1524 Safavid Dynasty. Claimed descent from 7th imam, reincarnation of Ali. Declare himself Shah in Tabriz(1501). Defeated Aq-qoyunlu. Defeated by Ottomans(Chaldiran 1514)
Shaykh Safi al- Din
1252-1334 Safavid Dynasty. Sunni Sufi religious leader. Preached against domination of Uymaqs.
Cavalry. free born muslims. administrative and military duties.
An esoteric path to know God An attempt to know ultimate reality/God.Part of Christian gnostic heritage. Often critique of royal culture and secualr power. Sufi orders in all pars of the Muslim world by 10th Century. Sufism readily adopted from Christian
Suleyman the Lawgiver the magnificent
1520-1566 1521-captured Belgrade. 1522-captured Rhodes 1529/1532 Beseiged vienna. conquest of north africa. codification of ottoman Kanun(law code nect to islamic law)
Timar system
form of salary. Iltizam-tax farming.
Timur Ling
Tamerlane 1336-1405
Timurid Dynasty


Timur Ling or Tamerlane(1336-1405).

Claims succesion of Chagatai line in Samarqand.

Extent of conquests(Iran, Russia, North India,Ottoman Turkey, Damascus).

Fragmentation after Timur's death. 

Treaty of Karlowitz


Ottomans lose European countries of the empire 


Iranian land grant 

Turkick Military order
Zahir al-Din Muhamma Babur
1526-1530 Mughal empire. Descendant o timur and chingiz khan.based in Farghanah valley in Afghanistan. 1526 Battle of Paniat defeats Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. Est himself in Delhi.
Old hereditary land owners dominated in country side during the Mughal empire.

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