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How does it compare to Eastern religion?
Man is master of nature whereas in Eastern religion, he is a part of it.
What are the implications of this monotheism?
Divine human relationship with God, immanence with God, transcendence as God is above nature.
What taboos are present?
No divination, no idols; God receives exclusive loyalty
How many followers worldwide?
15 million, mostly in the US
Why is it considered an \"exile religion?\"
It used to have a centralized location in Israel, but over the past 2000 years, it\'s been dispersed. The religion itself is culturally diverse because of this dispersal. It\'s maintained a certain continuity as its traditions have been kept. It has also been the target of hostility because of its \"alien status.\"
Why is it called Judaism?
It was the tribe of Judah that came under controls of Persia who decided to call them Jews.
Describe the beginning of Judaism.
Founded 2000 BC in Mesopotamia. Its existence was nomadic in 2000 BC, then settled around 1100 BC.
About Abrahamic covenant?
Abraham lived in Ur. God established the circumcision covenant with him to create an exclusive loyalty between Abraham and God. God provided him with children, land, protection. At Abraham\'s time, religion was seen as an informal cult centered on sacrifice.
About Mosaic covenant?
Moses was identified as a prophet, meaning that he speaks on God\'s behalf. He settles in Egypt. Exodus tells the story of the divine deliverance out of Egypt which is important because it shows God\'s faithfulness by establishing the covenant. Also important because of the giving of the Torah on Mt. Sinai.
About Canaan?
Israelites were commanded by God to enter the land of Canaan. This lead to holy wars between the Canaanites and the Israelites. Eventually, the Canaanites were displaced to Lebanon.
View of Messiah?
A messiah was seen as a king or religious figure. Messiah means \"anointed.\" He is very powerful and surpasses all previous kings.
What are 7 aspects of the Law/Torah?
monotheism, aniconism, sacrificial cult, priesthood, no divination, comprehensive, purity in diet and sex.
About National Period?
1050 BC to 135 AD. Monarchy was inherited. King David was in power at one point. Jerusalem was the Jewish capitol. Judaism was centralized because of the construction of the temple by David\'s son Solomon.
About religious syncretism?
Combining folk religions\' traditions with those of Judaism. Includes polytheism, images, divination, fertility cult, human sacrifice.
About prophets?
They speak on God\'s behalf. They maintain faithfulness to the Torah.
About first Jewish civil war?
Around 930 BC between Israel and Judah. Assyria invades northern Israel and deports all people there. Vassal state.
About second civil war?
Between Babylon and Judah. Lasts 70 years. In 535 BC, Persia conquers Babylon and restores Jews to homeland. In 330 BC, Alexanger the Great and Greece succeed Persia and absorbs Judea. This leads to Maccabean War from 167 to 165 BC in response to Antiochus Epiphanes. He was the Greek who brought Zeus statues to Jewish temples, burns the Torah, and sacrifices pigs at the temple. Jews regain independence from 165 BC to 63 BC.
About Rome and the Jews?
63 BC - Rome absorbs Jewish state as a province in the Roman Empire. There is a Jewish Civil War as a result.
Conflict with Rome led to development of four political parties. What are they?
Sadducees (priests), Pharisees (rabbis), Zealots (revolutionaries), and Essenes (Desert Community).
About sadducees?
Cooperators. Seen as corrupt for associating with Romans. Reject idea of resurrection.
About Pharisees?
Separators. Teachers. Known as religious purists.
About Zealots?
Rebels. Used any means necessary to eliminate Roman rulers. Seen as terrorists by Romans.
About Essenes?
Complete withdrawal. Maintained that Judaism had become too corrupt and the only way to preserve it would be to withdraw from it. Non-involvement.
Revolt in 66 AD?
Temple corrupted. Soldiers brought in while Roman army comes. Roman emperor destroys temple as punishment for the revolters.
About 132 AD revolt?
Led by Simon Barkochba, who is seen as a Messiah. At the end, Jerusalem is totally destroyed. Beginning of diaspora, or dispersal of Jews to other regions. Land becomes known as Palestine.
How do Jews maintain their religious status after 135 AD?
They still have the Torah to maintain their religion. Rabbis survive as a political group.
About Jewish Creation story?
Emphasizes goodness. God sets out each day to achieve a creational goal. In other religions, creation is more spontaneous.
Jewish view of humanity?
Humans were created in God\'s image. This is profound as the 2nd commandment states that no images shall be made of God. This reflects morality. Humans should be good like God. Humans have a purpose and an immortal soul.
Main challenge for Jews?
Alienation from God. One wants to maintain closeness to God.
Jewish Path of Ultimate Transformation?
Reconciliation to God. Humans follow laws established by covenant.
About afterlife?
Heaven or sheol, a purgatory.
About Bible?
Sacred text. Includes TaNaK. Torah (law), Nebiim (prophets), Kethuvim (writings)
About Talmud?
Another sacred text. Includes the Mishnah and Gemara. Mishnah is the oral law, while the Gemara includes commentary and analysis of the Mishnah.
About circumcision?
8th day of life. Welcomes boys into covenant between God and Abraham.
About bar/bat mitzvah?
coming-of-age ceremony at age 13, the age at which a person becomes responsible for their actions.
About Sabbath/Shabbat?
Sundown Friday until Saturday night. Includes synagogue service. Certain activities are prohibited while others are encouraged.
About New Year/Rosh Hashanah?
Symbolizes death/renewal. Occurs of first of month of Tishri.
About Yom Kippur?
Most important Jewish holy day. Day of atonement. Solemn. Whole day spent praying. Ten days of repentance between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
About Passover/Pesach?
Celebrates Israel\'s freedom from Egypt in March/April. Main focus is a ritual meal.
About Weeks/Shavout?
Occurs 7 weeks after Passover. Celebrates spring harvest. Symbolizes God\'s giving of the Torah on Mt. Sinai.
About Booths/Sukkot?
5 days after Yom Kippur. Lasts 7 days. Jews build a symbolic hut. Represents notion that physical possessions are unreliable and simple.
About Purim?
Celebrates Esther\'s saving of Jews from Haman, a Persian. Early spring. Includes parades, masquerades, games, alcohol.
About Hanukkah?
Festival of Lights. Lasts 8 days during Winter Solstice. Celebrates victory of Jews over Seleucids in 165 BC. Jews won back the temple from them and found enough candle oil for one day and lit menorah. The fire lasted 8 days. Hanukkah means joy, games, gifts, and food.
About Reform Judaism?
Judaism conforms to modern life by allowing changes in law.
About Conservative Judaism?
Judaism adapts to modern life by using principles of change with modern law.
About Orthodox Judaism?
Modern movement continuing a strict adherence to traditional law.
About Zionism?
Modern movement to secure a Jewish homeland in Palestine, led to formation of Israel.
About the term Holocaust?
Comes from the Torah, meaning \"whole burnt offering.\" Also called Shoah, meaning \"catastrophe.\"
How many Jews were killed?
6 million. That was 2/3 of European Jews. 1/3 of Jews worldwide.
Who else did Nazis kill?
Gypsies, Russians, Jehovahs witnesses, homosexuals, communists, and the handicapped.
About Hitlers program?
Exclusion (denied civil rights), isolation (sent to work camps), and extermination (murdered).
Jewish interpretations of the holocaust?
Martyrdom: must be willing to sacrifice themselves for God. Atonement: death of righteous redeems humanity. Judgment: God\'s punishment for unfaithfulness. Agnosticism: God\'s will is hidden from humanity. No way of knowing why it happened. Free will: Humans chose evil over good. No religious significance. Revival: Spurred Jews to reassert their faith. God is dead: God does not exist because he would not have allowed this to happen otherwise.
About Rabbinic Authority reading?
Mishnah states that you shall not cheat with words, meaning you shouldn\'t vex or oppress strangers. The Gemara tells the story of Rabbi Eliezer and the Akhnai Stove, which he says is clean though others consider it unclean because of the sand between its tiles. He said that various inanimate objects including a carob tree, a stream, and a wall would confirm his assertion. The other rabbis didn\'t buy his claim. Rabbi Joshua said that the wall that bent did not FALL as Eliezer said, but they stayed in the middle between down and up. Eliezer then said a heavenly voice would say it\'s so. Then a heavenly voice tried arguing for Eliezer. Joshua then quoted Deuteronomy saying, \"It is not in the heavens,\" meaning that the Torah had been given at Mt. Sinai and no attention should be paid to the voice. God laughed at how he was outvoted by the rabbis.
About Creation?
Same Genesis story. Day 1: Light, Day 2: sky, Day 3: land, water, and plants, Day 4: Day and night, Day 5: birds and fish, Day 6: land animals and humans, Day 7: Rest. Also includes 3 mandates: 1) Humans should fill and master the Earth, 2) Humans should eat plants for food, 3) The 7th day shall remain holy. This is the P or priestly story. There is also the J or Yahwist story in the Tanak in which God is more personally invested in creation.
About Reform Judaism reading?
18th century emphasis on political rights ignited a movement in Germany for Jews to reform practices by 1) Modernizing music, 2) Integrating some Christianity into Judaism. This was introduced into the US with German immigration and the Pittsburgh Platform of 1885. It stated that God is sought by every religion, but Judaism is most accurate. Also, Bible is of utmost importance, but science shouldn\'t be dismissed either. The Bible reflects primitive knowledge of the time it was written. Maintain Mosaic moral law, but reject what doesn\'t apply to modern life. Diet regulation, priest purity, and traditional dress is no longer necessary for spiritual elevation. Regaining control of Israel is unimportant as Jews are a religion, not a nation. Christians and Muslims are allies as they are daughter religions of Judaism. Soul is immortal and spirit is divine. Problems should be solved with justice and righteousness.

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