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Roman History Test 1


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Masinissa of Numidia
Numidian king, who was allied with Rome against Carthage in the 2nd Punic War. He becomes a vassal king after the Romans win.
Battle of Zama
Battle in 202 BC, where Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal in Africa, soon leading to the end of the 2nd Punic War. Hannibal escapes to the east.
Battle of Cannae
A major battle of the 2nd Punic war in 216 BC where Hannibal defeated Rome with a smaller and inferior force. This was the low-point of Rome's defense against Hannibal.
A Roman historian who composed a long history of Rome - including the legendary founding(s) of Rome and the age of Kings. He was a moralist, and sought to teach his readers about the decline of Roman morals over the years.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
A Greek historian who wrote on early Roman history - from the legendary founding to the first Punic War in his book Roman Antiquities
A Greek historian who wrote a series of Lives characterizing various Greek and Roman leaders, and comparing and contrasting their various qualities and less desirable characteristics. Wrote in the first centuries of AD, so his account is long after the fact, although based on ancient sources that are not extant.
Sources for Early Rome
Livy Dionysius of Halicarnassus Plutarch archaeology
Burial grounds (cities of the dead)
Esquiline Hill
Most populated areas of Rome during its infancy.
Legendary father of Rome, who fled from Troy to found the city of Lavinium, supposedly an ancestor of Romulus and Remus. Helped the Romans fit into the Greek idea of history.
Romulus and Remus
Legendary brothers who were suckled either by a kind family or a wild wolf. Held auspices to see who would be the first king of Rome. Both believed themselves king, and Remus is killed in the fight that results from this disagreement. Romulus becomes king and is credited (in legend) with the founding of the Roman legions and the senate. Also was said to have kidnapped many Sabine women, to provide wives for his subjects. Conquered a wide swath of land, and became one of ancient Rome's most successful conquerors.
Numa Pompilius
Legendary Second King of Rome. Introduced religion to Rome, and built the temple of Janus to indicate whether the state was in peace or war. Established the office and duties of the Pontifex Maximus and institued the flamines of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. Also brought the Vestal Virgins to Rome from Alba Longa. Also engaged in calendar reform.
Tullius Hostilius
Legendary 3rd Kind of Rome, who succeeded Numa Pompilius. He was a warlike king and is credited with defeating Alba Longa, while also fighting successful wars against Veii and the Sabines. Livy - Tullus paid little heed to religious observances, and Livy blames this for several omens occurring at the end of his reign. Struck dead by a Jupiter when he did not carry out sacrifices properly, after becoming afraid of these omens.
Ancus Marcius
The 4th King of Rome who waged war against the Latins and settled them on the Aventine hill.
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
5th king of Rome - Son of a Corinthian, and therefore banned from holding office in Tarquinii. Addressed the Comitia Curiata, and convinced them to elect him King. Conducted several successful campaigns against the Sabines, and the Etruscans. Doubled the Centuriate Assembly, and brought much plunder to Rome, with which he began the construction of the temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus.
Wife of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, who prodded her husband, an Etruscan, to become king of Rome. She was noted for having good prophetic skill, and could read omens.
Servius Tullius
6th King of Rome - Installed by Tanaquil after Tarquinius Priscus is assassinated by Ancus Marcius' sons. Established the comitia centuriata, and made it the central legislative body. Initiated the practice of the census, organized Romans by location and wealth, built the temple of Diana, and introduced hoplite warfare.
Rape of Lucretia
Tarquinius Superbus' son Sextus Tarquinius raped Lucretia, after which she committed suicide, prompting her widowed husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus to vow the end of Roman monarchy.
Royal house, which later became the house of the Pontifex Maximus
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
Started construction by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, finished during reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and consecrated by the new roman republic after Superbus' exile. On the Capitoline Hill.
Via Sacra
Sacred way through the forum, the main street that led from the top of the Capioline Hill, and through the most important religious sites of teh Forum. Part of a traditional route of the Roman triumph.
Forum Boarium
Cattle Market, earliest forum that Rome possessed.
Cloaca Maxima
"The Great Drain" - established in Rome to drain local marshes and remove waste water from the city.
Circus Maximus
Grounds where games were often held. Chariot races were the main event usually held here.
Major Etruscan Cities
Caere Tarquinii Veii Vulci Orvieto
Ancestors of the Etruscans, name designates the pre-literary culture they embodied.
A non Indo European language, which is out of the ordinary for the area.
names for Etruscans
Etruscan - Rasenna Greek - Tyrennoi Latin - Tusci or Etrusci.
God Equivalence
Zeus, Tinia, Jupiter Apollo, Aplu, Apollo Hera, Uni, Juno Athena, Mnerva, Minerva Aphrodite, Turan, Venus
Ancienct Etruscan port in Latium where the Pyrgi Tablets containing text in Phoenician and etruscan were found.
Downfall of the Etruscans
474 - Defeat at Cumae at the hands of the Romans 396 - Romans capture Veii295 - Battle of Sentinum, a horrible defeat at the hands of the Romans
Advisor to emperor Augustus, who was proud of his Etruscan Heritage
Emperor Claudius
An emperor who studied Etruscan Language and history.
Neolithic (Stone Age)
5000-3000 BC
Orientalizing period
700-500 BC, Etruscans come into contact with eastern cultures (Phoenicians, Greeks) and developed trading contacts with these peoples. Corinthian pottery was highly prized.
Chalcolithic (Stone-Copper age)
3000-2000 BC
Bronze Age
1800-900 BC
Iron Age
900-725 BC
Burying of dead, could indicate properties of ancient cultures. If there was a rapid change to this form of burial, could signify a takeover or other drastic change.
Burial of a dead person, burned and bones and ashes placed in an urn
Traditional Founding Date of Rome
753 BC, founded by Romulus and Remus.
Traditional Date of the Founding of the Roman Republic
508 BC - Overthrow of Tarquin Superbus and formation of the republic.
First Punic War
264-238 BC - Rome fights war with Carthage, in which Rome wins and gains control of Sicily - becoming the first Roman province.
Second Punic War
218-202 BC Rome fights against Hannibal, who invades the Italian peninsula, and deals massive damage to the state.
Date of the Destruction of Carthage and Corinth
146 BC - Signifies Roman dominance over the Mediterranean.
Pater Familias
Father of a family
Patria ptestas
Paternal power - all-encompassing power of a father over his children and slaves.
Family Consilium
Family council, presided over by the pater familias, to judge wives and children.
Marriage with Manus
"manus" = hand. Wife comes under husband's authority and into his family.
Really a guardian (not a tutor) for underage children and for women of all ages.
Tutela mulierrum
Guardianship of women
Patricians and Plebeians
An elite group of citizens in ancient Rome, who originally had more rights than patricians. However, this term does not necessarily mean rich, as there were rich plebeians as well. The distinction between the two faded after the Struggle of the Orders, in which plebeians gained rights to hold any of the offices in the cursus honorum. Later, some Patricians even defected to plebeian status to become tribunes of the plebs.
Patron and Clients
A system where Clients would demonstrate loyalty to their patrons including monetary contributions and work. The Patron would guard his client, and be his benefactor.
Debt bondage slavery in Rome, where the debtor pledged himself as collateral towards a loan. Later abolished by the Lex Poetelia. After Rome's success in the wars with Macedon and other Hellenistic empires, this practice was replaced by chattel slavery, using prisoners from the wars as slaves.
The freeing of slaves. Slaves manumitted by Roman citizens became citizens themselves. They could not hold office, but their descendants could.
Roman Writer writing in the 1st Century BC about religion, but we only know him through later writers, including St. Augustine
God of war and agriculture, and the most important god in early Rome
Equivalent to Greek Zeus, Zeus-pater "father Zeus," becomes more important than Mars later on through Rome's history.
Goddess of Marriage, and equivalent to the Greek Hera
Goddess equivalent to the Greek Athena
"Sense of duty" to gods, family, and state. A prized quality among Romans
"do et des"
General methodology of Roman religion. Sacrifices or oaths are made so that the gods will do something nice for you in return. No real spirituality.
Methods of Determining the Will of the Gods
Augury haruspicy Sibylline Books omens and signs
Practice of determining the will of the gods by observing the flight of birds.
Method of determining the will of the gods through observing the entrails of sacrificial victimes
Priest of a specific God. flamines maiores were the priests of Jupiter, Mars and Juno. flamines minores, were the priests of the other, lesser gods. Part of a Pontificial College, which administered state sponsored religion in Rome.
Pontifex Maximus
High priest: the most important priest of ancient Roman religion. It was a largely politicized office.
Vestal Virgins
Small group of women, chosen from elite families to serve for 30 years. 10 years to learn rites, 10 years to perform rites, and 10 years to teach rites. Analogous to Roman purity - breaking virginity would bring horrible tragedy on Rome. Were charge with keeping the sacred flame of Vesta (the Goddess of hearth and home) burning.
People would make a prayer and leave a votive as a symbol of that prayer. Often took the form of clay body parts to heal by a certain god or goddess.
Petitioning a god in prayer for something.
Cult of Isis
An Egyptian cult that was imported to Rome.
The most prestigious office in the Roman cursus honorum. Elected every 5 years, and served 18 months. Responsibilities: Take the Census - the accounting of Roman citizens and their property, the keeping of Roman Morals, Reading of the Senate lists and determining if those on it are worth of Senatorial status.
A governor of a province, usually obtained by extending the term of a consul.
2 Elected annually, had to be at least 42, could only serve once per 10 years. Responsibilities: Presided over the Senate, and led campaigns. The 2 Consuls gave their names to the year.
Elected annually - 2 Major - urbanus and inter peregrinos were in charge of legal affairs. By 80 BC, 6 more were needed to administer provinces. provinces.
- Originally 2, but eventually there were 20 by 80 BC. They served under a praetor and managed finances.
2 Curule, 2 Plebeian. Not necessarily part of the cursus honorum, bu you had to be a quaestor or a tribune first. Responsiblities: The Physical side of Rome - Maintenance of public buildings, throwing festivals. All on one's own dime. It was a useful office for young men trying to get their name known by the masses, and also demonstrated a commitment to public service.
10 Tribunes, only for the Plebeians, and presided over the concilium plebis. Elected annually, and normally only once. Were sacrosanct. One tribune could veto all others.
Cursus Honorum
"Racetrack of offices" - Indicates the political process by which men attempted to achieve the highest political offices. Completed in this order: quaestor aedile (not neccessary) praetor consul censor
Families who counted a consul among their ancestors
Novus Homo
"new man" the first in his family to reach the consulship
"Image" - A way mask prtraying an ancestor who reached consulship. These masks were worn by paid actors at funerals, complete with the pomp and circumstance this ancestor would have carried around with him. (Purple Toga)
honor/rank - The most noble pursuit of Roman men - to achieve high office, and therefore dignitas. Senators undoubtedly had it.
Command or power, held by consuls and praetors.
"Liberation" of Greece
Announced by T. Quinctius Flaminius at games in Corinth in 196.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus
Renowned Roman consul who defeated Hannibal at Zama.

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