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Ch 33-34


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A controversial group of young writers, poets, painters, and musicians trying to discard traditional conventions.
Forbade any president from serving more than two terms
Who were the two runners in the 1952 elections?
a)Dwight Eisenhower (R) world hero, but political novice; the man of the people b)Adlai Stevenson (D) hardly known outside Illinois promised an “early and honorable” peace in Korea, R’s labeled him an egghead
Eisenhower’s background:
a)Born in Denison, Texas, grew up in Abilene, Kansas b)Attended West Point Military Academy c)Assumed the post of supreme commander of Allied forces
What was Eisenhower’s “hidden-hand presidency?”
The belief that he intentionally created a public image of passivity to hide his involvement in policy decisions.
What did Eisenhower mean by Dynamic conservatism?
Conservative on money and liberal for human beings
Who was Senator Joseph McCarthy?
Launched a one-man crusade against Communism, convinced that the US gv’t was infested with them and their spies.
What was the Smith Act of 1940?
Aimed at conspirators against the government, was deemed in 1957 to apply only to those advocating “revolutionary” action.
Who was John Foster Dulles?
Thought that the policy of “containment” was too defensive, believed in the “liberation” of Eastern Europe; “brinkmanship” policies
What was SEATO?
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization – in case of attack on one, the others would act according to their “constitutional practices” and in case of threats or subversion they would consult immediately: Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, US
What were a few of the international effects caused by the Russian launch of Sputnik?
Increased budged for defense and domestic programs, Italy and Turkey accepted US missiles on their territory, NASA was created, and in 1958, the National Defense Education Act was passed.
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
Resolution that promised to extend economic and military aid to Middle East nations to assist against armed aggression by any Communist country
Somewhat successful negotiations in 1958-60 regarding Berlin/German reunification were demolished by what occurrence?
An American spy plane was shot down over Russia, and Eisenhower, taking responsibility for the incident refused to cease the spy flights.
What organization tested the separate-but-equal doctrine in the mid-1930’s?
What was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas?
The Supreme Court declared that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place,” the mere fact of race separation creates feelings of inferiority.
What issues arose with the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education?
Eisenhower didn’t force states to comply, Citizens’ Councils maintained white supremacy
When was the Civil Rights Act proposed?
Who ran in the 1956 election?
Eisenhower and Stevenson
Who ran in the 1960 elections?
Richard Nixon (R), John F. Kennedy (D) – rose through an effective public relations campaign engineered by his father
What set apart the 1960 presidential debate from previous years?
Television broadcast
Who was John F. Kennedy?
The youngest person ever elected president, who won the popular vote by .17% of all cast votes
Despite Kennedy’s inability to pass almost any legislation through Congress, he had at least one great legislative accomplishment which was what?
The Trade Expansion Act of 1962 which led to tariff cuts averaged 35% on good traded between the US and the European Economic Community
After years of public protest and demonstrations, JFK did what?
Endorsed an ambitious civil rights bill intended to end discrimination
What was the largest civil rights demonstration in history?
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, by 200,000 black and whites on August 28, 1963
What peaceful agreement resulted from the Cuban Missile Crisis?
A treaty with the USSR and Britain to end nuclear testing in the atmosphere, oceans, and outer space.
After continuing Kennedy’s presidential ambitions, Johnson added what to his To-Do list?
A “war on poverty”
What was Johnson’s “Great Society?”
A demand for the end of poverty and racial injustice, resting on abundance and liberty for all
Who ran for election in 1964?
Barry Goldwater (R) – Very conservative, came across as trigger happy, Lyndon Johnson (D) – Promoted civil rights, and didn’t want to send forces to Vietnam
The largest percentage of migrant Americans were from where?
Asia and Latin America
Who led the Black Panthers?
Huey P. Newton and Eldridge Cleaver
What positive effects did the black power philosophy have on the civil rights movement?
It helped African Americans to take greater pride in their heritage, It forced King and other leaders to focus attention on the plight of poor inner-city blacks
What was the Tonkin Gulf resolution?
Authorized the president to take all necessary measures to repel an attack and prevent further aggression, Result of an unprovoked attack on the Maddox and the C. Turner Joy, though there was no evidence
When was Martin Luther King killed?
April 4th, 1968
Who ran in the election of 1968?
1)Hubert Humphrey (D) Johnson’s VP 2)Richard Nixon (R) spokesman for the values of “Middle America” 3)George Wallace (D) defender of segregation, reactionary candidacy
What's the order of the presidents?

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