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Multi-state decision-making
1. intergovernmental 2. supranational 3. multi-level governance
e.g. European Council -- decision-making power held by member state governments
decision-making power transferred to authority broader than member state governments e.g. European Commission
Multi-level Governance
Covers gray area between supranational and intergovernmental
Dependency Theory
center-periphery relationship exporting natural resources, importing manufactured goods -- unsustainable economy
Cosmopolitan Culture
common to all over the world -- shared set of values
Washington Consensus
"What Washington means by policy reform" -- guidelines to LA on suggested "areas of agreement"
Policy prescriptions of Washington Consensus
1. macroeconomic discipline 2. market system 3. openness
Path dependence
Policies at one point impact policies at a later point
Interpretations of path dependence
1. lock in effect 2. path dependence in perspective 3. positive feedbacks
Policy Transfer
debated across national/sectoral policy learning
Policy Diffusion
deliberated across all possible channels of influence between countries
Welfare Regimes
1. Conservative 2. Liberal 3. Social Democratic
Varieties of Capitalism
1. Liberal Market Economy 2. Coordinated Market Economy
Characterized by: 1. liberal employment protection guarantees 2. generous employment compensation 3. active labor market policies
Theoretical approaches to welfare states
1. functionalist approach 2. class mobilization approach 3. institutionalist approach
Functionalist Approach
Answer to problems created by capitalism: new risks of industrialization; vanishing of traditional means of subsistence/mutual assistance
Class Mobilization Approach
Welfare state is outcome of struggle between social classes and political organizations; aims to decommodify labor
Institutionalist Approach
welfare state = compensation to workers for lack of participatory rights.
Expansion of welfare state:
1. impact of social democracy 2. impact of neo-corporatism 3. risk redistribution 4. Christian democracy 5. secular trends
Typology of welfare states:
1.Scandinavian social democratic 2. Anglo-Saxon liberal 3. Continental conservative
Challenges to welfare states:
1. recommodification 2. cost containment 3. recalibration
Conceptual Models of Policymaking
1. Institutional model 2. Rational model 3. Incremental model 4. Group model 5. elite model
Institutional model
-institutions determine public policies -implemented by executive and legislative
Rational Model
- how can "optimal" policy be reached? -assumption of rational actors -Bayesian learning
Incremental Model
- concept of "bounded rationality" -
Group Model
- public policies are result of equilibrium in interest group struggles
Elite Model
- policymaking determined by preferences of governing elites
Policy Cycle
1. agenda setting 2. policy formulation 3. policy adoption 4. policy implementation 5. evaluation
Cognitive frame
Schemes through which actors view and frame the world
Normative frame
values and attitudes that influence actors' views
1. harmonization 2. transnational communication 3. imposition 4. regulatory competition

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