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music history1234


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-1750-1790 -Intellectual, scientific, practical -Monarchs supported social reform and expansion of the arts. -Focus placed on betterment of humankind - Social reformers = "les philosophes"
-1700-1760 -Artistic term for light and airy interior decor -French Rococo music softened the Baroque style by adding curved arabesques -Rameau and Couperin are the main composers
-1720-1780 -Homophonic music with short phrases and frequent cadences -Composers: Pergolesi, Stamitz, J.C. Bach
-1760s-1770s -Turns in harmony, chromaticism, nervous rhythms -C.P.E. Bach = best-known composer
Italian comic opera performed in between the acts of a serious opera or play -Ex.: La Serva Padrona
Opera Buffa
-Eighteenth century Italian comic opera -Stock characters -Entertaining, but with moral purpose
Opera Comique
-18th century French entertainment -Spoken dialogue instead of recitative
Ballad Opera
-Eighteenth century English comic play -Features songs in which new words are set to borrowed tunes -Ex.: John Gay's "Beggar's Opera"
C.P.E. Bach
-Older brother, remained closer to Baroque style -Dynamic changes, dissonance, modulations -Influenced Haydn
J.C. Bach
-Younger-brother with style contrasting Baroque -The London Bach -Melodic, dramatic, graceful -Inspired by Italian Opera -Influence on Beethoven and Mozart
Mannheim School
-Orchestral techniques pioneered by the Mannheim orchestra -Dynamic range and rocket crescendos -Led by Stamitz
Sturm und Drang
-1760s-1780s -Free expression of extreme emotions -Symphonies written in this style were in minor keys and showed agitated character
London Symphonies
-Haydn's 12 crowning achievements -Daring harmonies, intense rhythms, memorable themes
-Embellished, often improvised passage -Occurs at important cadence just before the end of a piece
-Palace built in Hungary by Prince Nikolaus Esterházy. -"Hungarian Versailles" -Hungary's grandest Rococo monument
Recitative and Aria
Recitative: Vocal passage in an opera that approaches speech and follows the natural rhythms of the text Aria: Lyrical monologue in an opera
-German genre of opera -Features spoken dialogue interspersed with vocal and instrumental music
Pre-Classical Period
-1720-1780 -Noble simplicity -Naturalness -Equilibrium, balance, restraint -Perfection of form -Outwardly unpretentious/inwardly sophisticated
Sonata Allegro Form
-Used in first or last movement of a sonata EXPOSITION -Based on contrast of two different themes -Bridge in between themes modulates to dominant or relative major. DEVELOPMENT -Rapid key changes -Chopped up material -Final V RECAPITULATION -2 Themes, both in tonic -Closing -Coda
Classical Symphony Movement Plan
Movement I. -SA form -Begins/ends in tonic -May include slow intro Movement II. -Slow, lyrical -ABA form OR theme & variations -Usually in sub-dominant or relative major Movement III. -Present in MOST symphonies -Minuet and Trio -In tonic Movement IV. -Fast, light -Rondo form (ABACABA)OR SA form or Sonata Rondo form -In tonic
Concerto First Movement in connection to Ritornello Form
R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 Concerto first movement has CODA following R4
Rondo Form
Main section recurs, usually in the tonic, between sections.
Haydn vs. Mozart
⬢ Haydn was influenced by the music surrounding Vienna and by folk music. He was concerned with motive theme and development and thought structurally. 1730s-1800s. ⬢ Mozart was influenced by many European sounds from a young age. He wrote more predictable melodies and thought operatically. 1750s-1790s.
Development of Symphony
Started off as 3 movements: Fast-slow-fast Became four movements: 1. allegro 2. slow 3. minuet or scherzo 4. allegro or rondo

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