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Poli Sci1


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Fact Vs. Opinion
is vs. ought
empirical vs. normative
emperical- numbers, fact normative- can be both (some politicians hope will/ought to happen
Behaviorists vs. traditionalists
facts vs. data
is influence (stronger) with losses for non-compliance (gains for complaice) - techniques
somone gets someone to do something he/she would not ordinarily do
Manifest/ Latent Power
manifest- shown, show influence of losses (seen, tangible) Latend- hidden, threat, understood once you show it you dont have any!
Legitimacy & legitimate power
willing to accept the losses -legitimate power =AUTHORITY
non-legitimate power
coercion, not legitimate, do something about it!
What is Politics?
1. Authoritative allocation of values (David Easton -legitimate hands out/distributes monay, property, govt services, symbolic values 2. Who gets what, when, how (Laswell)
3 Power Structures
1. Egalitarianism 2. Pluralism 3. Elitism
Name a person from each power structure
1. Egal. Alexis de Tocquville 2. Robert Dahl, EE Schattschneider 3. C. Wright Mills, G. William Domhoff
-the PEOPLE have equl say -majority rule -Alexis de Toquville's Democracy in American -"Tryanny of the majority"
-issue based groups -competeing/shifting/ countervailing GROUPS -all decisions made by compromising Robert Dahl- Who Governs (New Haven) political stratum-informed/ involved -open acces into political stratum apolitical stratum-not active in plitics
Hyper pluralism
-groups splinter -now fighting eachother -even less gets done EE Schatts (critic of Dahl) -pressure politics - upper class bias -90%
-a few minority groups ruling -The power elite -3 part triangle of power 1. military 2.political doctorate 3. corporate rich -happens naturally, normative, "trusting children" Domhoff- prep schools of New England where it starts
Political Systems
-David Easton -demands support/input -processed ( by 3 branches) -output (surpreme court decision -feedback provides for new input
in David Eastons political system- allows input to go in manageably without it being too much
Ancient Athens, Greece -427-347 BCE -Post-Peloponnesian (tragic series of wars wrecked athens) -Athens Vs. Sparta nobody won
Golden Age/ Great Athenian Culture
1. architecture 2. sculpture 3. writing
Post- Peloponnesian
-"democracy" -citizens 10% - 5% (only men) -slaves- most educated from other states, teachers
Platos Republic, why did Athens fail?
-writes as a way of explaining what is wrong about everything he has seen in Athens -Athens failed because too much democracy
A just society (according to PLato)
-good of the city, harmony - do whatever the city needs -no individuality competition -Knowledge, wisdom
Platos Structure/ Levels
1. Rulers - wisdom "philosopher kings" a few, older (small group) 2. Soldiers-courage auxiliaries - an assist to rulers, young eventually some become rulers 3. Money-Makers- skills -produce goods & services - vast number of ppl -mobility b/w switching classes is based on ones individuality
Allegory of the Cave
scared- no courage CAVE- wait to see if they walk to the light or stay seated
Guardians in Plato's Republic
-no private property -no families -selective breeding -men and woman are equal
Myth of the Metals
gold silver bronze iron
How Plato gets away with the Republic
"Noble Lies -persuasion and compulsion -power "throng of lies and deceptions"
What "is"- 1st political scientist -why write about perfect world when we dont know what it is -wants to study actuality -teacher of Alexander the Great -1st empirical behaviorist
Aristotle Classification
1. RULE BY ONE bad- tyranny good- monarchy 2. RULE BY A FEW bad- oligarchy good- aristocracy 3.RULE BY MANY bad- democracy good-polity TOD, MAP
majority rule/ min. protected -large middle class -distribution of wealth
The Prince
Machiavelli's letter/ dedication to tell Lorenzo how to seize and maintain power -the key to become a leader -Lorenzo hates the book and kills family
human nature in Machiavelli
-people are bad (never change) -stupid, thankless, selfish, fickle, cowards, liars, needy
Why does Machiavelli say never trust the Nobles; avoid flatterers
-those that lost to you because they will desert you -they want your job and think they can do it better -whenever someone flatters you they have personal adgenda -only talk advice from a few and when you ask! RELY ON YOURSELF and trust your gut
"it is better to be feared then loves, but never be hated"
fear- lasts, predictable, always there (cruelty well applied to a few) LOVE-only when they are nice to you, doesnt last- private interests HATE- money taxes, punish too many
Prince must be a man and a beast
BEAST= lion and fox lion -strengthen force, strong good armies create good laws, manifest power, no mercenaries fox -clever, smart, liar, deciever- just appear , have a good "image" no one cares what your really like because "the ends justify the means"
Hobbes state of nature
grim- renounceth (give up) natural rights/ freedom -individualistic, selfish, competitive (out to save yourself) -gain -safety -reputation
"warre all against all" "war of every one against everyone"
in Hobbes son the longer you manage to hang on your up against survivors (harder to survive)
Hobbes believes you cannot live a commodious life life is Solitary, poore, hasty, brutish, short
Rights in Hobbes
tangeable, things that you can retract and discard -they are a technicality -everything is material (man is a machine)
Why Hobbe writes his book
-wrote to try and solve the terrible time of death he saw around him -Leviathan becomes first social contract theorist
Hobbes social Contract
-covenant -"peoples weapons are no longer in use" -majority (unanimous) if disagrees "justly destroyed" -pact between people
-"above the law" -lasts forever -outside contact- holds weapons/ keeps peace and order -holds all power over the people -mortal god -sovereign
Liberty vs. liberties
The liberty of a subject lieth.. only in those things which... the sovereign hath praetermitted (back, send before) -Leviathan gives back certain liberties (commodious living) -give up freedom and live
John Locke
wrote long explanatin/essay of event that already happened (obviously book is a winner)-Glorious Revolution -Second Treatise of Government
Lockes state of nature
good but not perfect- could stay in state of nature -same as Hobbes but Locke is good
Problems in Lockes state of Nature
unintentional/ tensional transgressions -they are biased because they are there on judges (confusion/disorder) -cant make enough $ cause always taking care of basic protections of every day life
-most important goal of all people -all was common originally -message from god)- god could not have intended to have land uncultivated
Limits on Property in Locke
-can use without spoilage -take what you can use - a small part -very moderate proportion -neighbors can get enough -agree to unequal distributions of land because of unequal amounts of labor -works very good (everyone not the same but have equal opportunities)
Lockes Social contract
-preserve natural rights(life liberty property)- EVEN enhances ( you dont have to protect anymore) its done for you in Lockes "Trust" -you can stay in state of nature -sovereign holds all the power (all the people) -govt does what the majority of people want at that time -govt is elected by majority vote - can opt out
Power of Government in Lockes Trust
"Limited to the public good of the society" 1. make laws (everyone knows laws before they break them) 2. execute the laws (carry out made laws) 3. known authorized judges (authority is legitimate - people recognize their authority) -accept the losses and knows who they are 4. govt cant transfer (no power to transfer since the power is only lent to them) it belongs to the people
how to get ride of Lockes Trust
you can dissolve the govt (revolt) if it acts contrary to their trust -foolish or wicked foolish- intentional wicked- didnt know
Classical Liberalism
political philosophy of Locke and Smith -anti aristocratic- Middle class $ through labror (opposes $ through inheritence) -Individualism -Freedom:Choices- suffer the consequences -Private property- Smith (wealth of nations- laissez-faire- capitalism) -invisible hand -democratic govt
direct democracy vs. republic
direct- ppl vote on issues republic- representatives ppl vote for representatives then those ppl vote on issues
Second wave of equality
Poor tried and failed first wave of equality (take of your tie)
Contemporary liberalism
-bigger govt -want to help the second wave -democrats
classical vs. contemporary
-different ways to achieve the same goal -equal chance to become unequal -DIFFERENCES = by govt
J.J. Rousseau
-first person to acknowledge the second wave of equality -he recognizes the poor -writes/wins essay contest- the origin of inequality -hates representatives- creates Direct Democracy
Rousseau state of nature
"man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains" -simple, shy, alone, innocent, enough to be independent, "stupid"- animal (clueless)-deer "this is mine" -IS LOCKE CHAINS= PROPERTY
Why Rousseau creates his social conract
creates as a way to get out of Locke ( because you cant go back, and you wouldnt want to since that life is unfufilling- good life but on your own and ppl are supposed to interact together in a community)
Rousseaus social contract
-give up natural rights (iberties) and get civil rights back -give up property and recieve different property back (all equal) -# of ppl is unanimous -everyone gets an equal slice
General Will in Rousseau
-decision on any issue that is good for all people finding the general will: (majority finds it) in assemblies (no reps.)
Assemblies in Rousseau
-fixed and unforseen(emergency) at the assemblies.. -they inform the people -no committe (no influences) -no partial associations ( no interest groups/political parties) -if there is a minority = ERROR voting on rational self interest "forced to be free"
Government in Rousseaus contract
-executes the laws -no power they just administer -chosen by a lot (random) because everyone is just as good as anybody else -MEANT FOR A SMALL STATE- not a nation because larger = smaller chance of voting contrary to majority -smaller slice
Classical Liberalism Reformed
-revised (includes the second wave of equality) who are working hard but not succeeding in a world of Locke
-Bentham-believed in max. pleasure and min. pain for a society -individual chooses util -equal representation in parliament/ voting
John Stuart Mill
(on Liberty) -Benthams student -believed in freedom of speech & democracy -supported mass free public education
Social Engineering
govt changes through programs and regulations to shape society a certain way for the societies happiness
Does American have a big government
yes but it small compared to Western nations -European countries are much more committed to a welfare state
Karl Marx
writes Communist Manifesto with Engles in Belgium and writes Das Kapital in Brutish mueseum -critic of capitalism, perfect communist state
Utopian socialists vs. Scientific socialist
utopian- set up communities -socialist -this will happen, law of nature, human behavior, Marx
Content and Method of Marxs Theory
content - economics method- dialectic
Classes in Marx
owners, oppressors, exploiters workers,, exploited opressed
superstructure in Marx
-everything you can see everyday captures your attention, recognized, shows on a surface of a society
everything underneath cant see it, base cant have a superstructure without the substructure
Marxs Dialectic
-idea from Hegel -deterministic thesis- dominate idea (accepted way of thinking and living) antithesis- opposing challenges idea clash- struggle- synthesis

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