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Modern World Exam Terms


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the economic theory that stressed governments promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economics in order to improve tax revenues. popular during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
was an Italian soldier of the Risorgimento and patriot. He led many military campaigns that brought about the unification of Italy. He has been named the "Hero of Two Worlds" because of his military expeditions to Europe and South America. He is an Italian national hero.
Ivan IV
also known as Ivan the Terrible. confirmed power to tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars/ aristocrats. continued policy of Russian expansion. established contacts with western European commerce and culture. He earned his nickname by killing many of the Russian nobles, or boyars, whom he suspected of conspiracy.
Louis XIV
french monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy. "I am the state" was his famous quote. He became a major patron of the arts, giving government a cultural role beyond any previous levels in the West. His academies not only encouraged science but also worked to standardize the French language.
son and successor of Humayan. oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India. pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes. attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India. He was only 13 when he became a leader and was doubted by his enemies, but proved to be one of the greatest leaders of all history.
Robert di Nobili
Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites first : he learned several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, which allowed him to read the sacred Hindu texts, strategy later widely adopted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed.
whites born in the New World. Dominated local Latin American economies and ranked just beneath Peninsulares. Creoles thought of themselves as loyal American Spaniards. They held sway over large numbers of dependants at their haciendas and mines, and stood at the top of society, second only to Peninsulares.
the first Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; restored position of scholar-gentry. He reigned for 30 years. Immediately after he seized the throne, he launched an effort to rid China of all traces of the Mongols. Mongol dress was discarded, Mongol names were dropped, and Mongol buildings were raided and sacked.
Asante Empire
established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi. dominated by Oyoko clan. many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650. Asante rose to prominence during the world slave trade.
russian pioneers. peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in the south. combined agriculture with military conquests and settlements.
Council of the Indies
body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised the king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.
people of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America. particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain. often part of forced labor system.
between 1405 and 1423 this admiral, one of Yunglo's most trusted subordinates, led seven major expeditions overseas. A mix of motives, including a desire to explore to explore other lands and proclaim the glory of the Ming Empire to the wider world, prompted the voyages.
Benjamin Disraeli
leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.
Socieded de Castas
American social system based on racial origins. Europeans or whites at top, black slaves or Native Americans at bottom, mixed races in the middle. This accompanied the great cultural fusion in the formation of Latin America.
Adam Smith
established liberal economics. wrote Wealth Of Nations. argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation or market forces. argued that people act according to their self-interest but, through competition, promote general economic advance.
Mary Wollstonecraft
enlightenment feminist thinker in England who argued against the general male-centered views of most enlightenment thinkers. argued that the new political rights should extend to women.
dutch farmers in Cape Colony, in southern Africa. around 1770 there was a fight between Boers and Bantu farmers for control of southern Africa that lasted until the 20th century in the nation of South Africa.
Middle Passage
slave voyage from Africa to Americas in the 16th through 18th centuries. generally a traumatic experience for black slaves. although it failed to strip africans of their culture. slaves were taken from their houses, branded, confined, and shackled, faced with poor hygiene, dysentery, disease, bad treatment, and the possibility of being beaten or worse by the Europeans. When they arrived in America, they retained their languages, beliefs, artistic traditions, and memories of the past.
Louis Napoleon
rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution; established French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815 at Waterloo.
Hernan Cortes
led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519. conquistador responsible for defeat of the Aztec Empire. captured Tenochtitlan. He had heard rumors of a great kingdom in the interior so he began to stroke inland. With the help of the Indian allies, he and his followers won. Although the Aztec confederacy put up a stiff resistance, disease, starvation, and battle brought the city down in 1521. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City.
Pugachev Rebellion
during 1770s in reign of Catherine the Great. led by cossack Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be legitimate tsar. eventually crushed. typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and thereafter. Pugachev used this as an excuse to extend the powers of the central government in regional affairs.
Ottoman infantry division that dominated Ottoman armies. forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves. translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century. Sometimes the boys parents willingly turned their sons over to the Ottoman recruiters because of the opportunities for advancement that came with service to the Ottoman sultans. Though legally slaves, the youths were given fairly extensive schooling for the time and converted to Islam.

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