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Napoleon III
Napoleon III inched steadily towards officially recognizing the Confederacy, especially after the crash of the cotton industry and his expedition in Mexico.
William H. Seward
Senator from New York. Spoke strongly against slaver. He was against concession. Argued that man must obey God's moral law as well as man's mundane law.
Matthew C. Perry
took naval expedition to japan to negotiate a trade treaty
Henry Clay
A leader that upheld the ideal of the union with is strength during the 1852 campaign. The good he had done lived on after his death and contributed powerfully to the eventual preservation of a united United Sates. He was the living embodiment of Whiggism. He proposed the Compromise of 1850. (the Great Compromiser)
Democrats who opposed the civil war
Molly Maguires
the name commonly applied to members of a secret organization that originated in Ireland
Franklin Pierce
He was was the last president to win the popular and electoral vote in N and S. and the last to serve under the Whigs against Democrats. In the 4 years of his term the Whig party split up into the America(Know Nothing) Party and the Republican Party. 1854
Maine Law
passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States.
Hudson's Bay Company
founded in 1670 in London, England, by a group of British merchants eager to exploit the resources of northern Canada. An unpopular monopoly in the Oregon Country.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
This act stated that the territory of Nebraska would be sliced into two territories- Nebraska and Kansas. Their status about slavery would be solved with popular soverienty.
William McGuffey
was an American professor and college president who is best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, one of the nation's first and mostly widely used series of textbooks. It is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, placing its sales in a category with the Bible and Webster's Dictionary.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Signed on February 2, 1848. Confirmed the American title to Texas and yielded the enormous area stretching westward to oregon and the ocean and California. The US had to pay $15 Mil. for land and to assume the claims of its citizens against Mexico in the amount of $3,250,000.
Tammany Hall
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
John C. Breckenridge
The leader of the organized rival convention in Baltimore by angered Southern Democrats. He favored the extension of slavery but was not a disunionist. During the election he polled fewer votes than the combined strength of his opponents.
"swing around the circle"
refers to a speaking campaign of US President Andrew Johnson in which he tried to gain support of his mild Reconstruction policies. It was referred to as such due to the route that the campaign took
Edgar Allan Poe
American writer known especially for his macabre poems, such as "The Raven" (1845), and short stories, including "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839).
seeks to end the practice of slavery and the worldwide slave trade. It began during the period of the second Enlightenment and grew to large proportions in Europe and United States during the 19th century
Transportaion Revolution
during the industrial revolution, Winter roads, River navigations, Turnpike Trusts, Canals, and Railways were all added to help the transportaion of goods
Hudson River School
a group of American painters of the mid-19th century whose works are characterized by a highly romantic treatment of landscape, esp. along the Hudson River
Washington Irving
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
John Bell
Tennessee politician and Plantation owner, nominated for president in 1860 by the United States Constitutional Union Party (Whig's) but lost to Lincoln and the Republicans.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe, antislavery novel
Lane Rebels
established in the Walnut Hills section of Cincinnati, Ohio in 1829 to educate Presbyterian ministers.
Preston Brooks
A hot tempered Congressman of South Carolina took vengeance in his own hands. He beat Sumner with a cane until he was restrained by other Senators. He later resigned from his position, but was soon reelected.
Louis Agassiz
United States naturalist (born in Switzerland) who studied fossil fish recognized geological evidence that ice ages had occurred in North America (1807-1873)
Knickerbocker Group
group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes
The Liberator
antislavery newspaper; founded by William Lloyd Garrison, banned in the south
Southern Nationalism
THe idea that the south would develop into its own country like, its how they became the confederates
George Pickett
ordered pickett's charge
"Spot" Resolution
Abe Lincoln presented resolutions that requested President James K. Polk to provide Congress with the exact location (the "spot") upon which blood was spilt on American soil
Moderate/Radical Republicans
Harper's Ferry Raid
the radical abolitionist John Brown led a group of 22 men in a raid on the Arsenal named Harper's Ferry
Freeport Doctrine
During the 2nd Lincoln-Douglas debates for a senate seat in Freeport Illinois. Douglas said that slavery could be prevented by any territory by the passing of laws against slavery.
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of the Union army who was nicknamed "Unconditional Surrender"
Noah Webster
a Yale-educated Connecticut Yankee; the "Schoolmaster of the Republic" who designed "reading lessons" that educated millions of children and were partly designed to increase patriotism; spent 20 years creating a dictionary, which was published in 1828 and helped standardize English
Edwin M. Stanton
Stanton was politically opposed to Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1860. After Lincoln was elected president, Stanton agreed to work as a legal adviser to the inefficient Secretary of War, Simon Cameron, whom he replaced
Bull Run
1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side
Grimke sisters
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Louisa May Alcott
American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women (1868-1869).
Margaret Fuller
She was the first female foreign correspondent and wrote for Greeley's New York Tribune.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
United States writer of novels and short stories mostly on moral themes (1804-1864), Romanticism--Dark Romanticism: Scarlet Letter; the Minister's Black Veil; Dark Romantic
Andrew Johnson
he became president after Lincoln, was assassinated. The plan that he proposed was rebelled by congress because it let leader(s) of the confederate be able to hold office.
Abraham Lincoln
president during/ after civil war, wanted to forgive the confederate states for leaving the union, reconstruction-leaniant b/c wanted to bind union together, thought blacks were inferior and thought that slavery was going to abolish itself, not for the extention of slavery into the new territory
Civil Rights Act
This secured the rights of freedmen., it gave citizenship to African- Americans
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
fredrick Douglas
born into slavery. Taught to read and write by a wife of one of the owners, decided to escape. Reached freedom and gave speeches about freedom.
"Seward's Folly"
The Alaska Purchase by the United States from the Russian Empire occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. The territory purchased was 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km²) of the modern state of Alaska.
John C. Calhoun
senator "Great Nullifier." His plea was to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its rights as a minority and restore the political balance.
American Anti-slavery society
was an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass was a key leader of the society and often spoke at its meetings.
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
United States poet remembered for his long narrative poems (1807-1882), "Paul Revere's Ride"
James K Polk
president in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates (South)
Joint Resolution
a resolution passed by both houses of Congress dealing with unusual or temporary matters, such as correcting an error in an earlier law
Lecompton Constitution
instrument framed in Lecompton, Kan., by Southern pro-slavery advocates of Kansas statehood. It contained clauses protecting slaveholding and a bill of rights excluding free blacks, and it added to the frictions leading up to the U.S. Civil War
Henry David Thoreau
American writer. A seminal figure in the history of American thought, he spent much of his life in Concord, Massachusetts, where he became associated with the New England transcendentalists and lived for two years on the shore of Walden Pond (1845-1847). His works include "Civil Disobedience" (1849) and Walden (1854)., Walden & "Civil Disobedience"
General Incorporation law
allows corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature. It also refers to a law enabling a certain type of corporation, such as a railroad, to exercise eminent domain and other special rights without a charter from the legislature.
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Thomas J. Jackson
was a Confederate general during the American Civil;He is most famous for his audacious Valley Campaign of 1862 and as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee
Cotton Gin
machine that produced a more efficient way to get the seeds out of cotton, and expanded southern development
Lincoln Douglas Debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Impending Crisis of the south
book written by Hinton Rowan Helper in 1857, condemns the institution of slavery
Ku Klux Klan
An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American [anti-immigrant]. Strongest periods were after the Civil War, a resurfacing in 1915 [on Stone Mountain, GA.] continuing through the 1920s, and another upsurge in the 1990s.
James russell Lowell
succeeded Longfellow at Harvard; one of America's better poets; distinguished essayist, literary critic (eew), editor, and diplomat; remembered as a political satirist
San Jacinto
the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas,
John Wilkes Booth
United States actor and assassin of President Lincoln (1838-1865)
James Gadsden
American diplomat, politician, and railroad promoter who negotiated the Gadsden Purchase.
An American steamer that was attacked by the British while it was carrying supplies to the insurgents across the Niagera River. It was set on fire and sank short of Niagara Falls.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
United States suffragist and feminist called for reform of the practices that perpetuated sexual inequality (1815-1902)
Lewis Cass
A veteran of the war of 1812. Senator and diplomat who the Democrats picked as their candidate for President. Wrote "popular sovereignty."
Peculiar instituion
a euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South.
sharing the crop, african americans who stayed on plantations did this. poor whites and aa would do the labor and the owner would provide the tools and land, at the end of the season the poor people would have to pay a "rent" in crops and most of the time the person would end up in a serious debt that they cannot get out of.
Fire eaters
People of the south that were violently opposed to the concessions. At the end southern unionists prevailed.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
Semisecret Irish organization that became a benevolent society aiding Irish immigrants in American.
Industrial Revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation, During this rapid period of industrial growth more and more countries adopted mess production. Handmade goods were quickly replaced by machine-made goods. Factory laborers replaced craftsmen and home production
Fugitive Slave Laws
By 1850 Southerners were demanding a new and more stringent fugitive slave law. The slave law in 1850 was more like bribing. the fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf, and they were denied a trial. The federal commisssioner recieved $10 if the slave was not freed.
lowell system
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills
Underground Railroad
The virual freedom train consisted of an informal chain of antislavery homes, through which runaway slaves were spirited usually by white and black abolitionists from the slave states to the free soil sanctuary of Canada.
philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in peronal emotion and imagination
Compromise of 1850
allowed california to enter the union as a free state and divided the mexican cession into two territories where slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty
Dorthea Dix
1841/reformer who cared for the mentally ill . school teacher at boston 7 responsible fo 15 states with these hospitols, Reformed mentally ill jails
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Tariff of 1842
Provided for upward revision, taking the average rates back to the level of 1833 before the recent reductions had been implemented. Placed a 32% tax on dutiable goods.
Thaddeus Stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
American Temperance Society
organization formed at Boston in 1826; (about a thousand local similar groups sprang up within a few year); implored drinkers to sign the temperance pledge and organized children's clubs known as the "Cold Water Army"; made use of pictures, pamphlets, and lectures
"radical" regimes
Second Great Awakening
was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings.
Ostend Manifesto
A top secret dispatch for the acquisition of Cuba between American ministers in Spain, England, and France. This document urged that the administration pay $120 million for Cuba.
Consititutional Union Party
created in 1860 it was made up of conservative former Whigs and former know nothingers who wanted to avoid disunion over the slavery issue.
"Conscience Whigs"
The antislavery whigs in congress who denounced with Mexico. They controlled the House and threatened to vote down supplies for the armies in the field.
King Cotton
slaves were mainly in the south on cotton plant. the more dense the slave pop. the cotton was maily grown there, nickname for cotton
Lucretia Mott
Leader in the abolitionist and women's rights movements.
Burned-over district
an area in central and western New York during the Second Great Awakening. The name was given because the area was so heavily evangelized during the revivalism of antebellum America
Robert Owen
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858), he believed that no one was "responsible for his will and his own actions" because "his whole character is formed independently of himself."
Morrill Tariff Act
a protective Tariff passed in 1861 that increased existing duties from 5 to 10%
Popular Sovereignty
This doctine stated that the sovereign people of a territory, under the general principles of the Constitution, should themselves determine the status of slavery.
George B. McClellan
a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army
Daniel Webster
Senator who urged that all reasonable concessions to the south, including a new fugitive slave law.
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844), Founder of Mormonism. Brigham Young became the leader after Smith died
American religious sect devoted to the teachings of Ann Lee Stanley, prohibited marriage and sexual relationships
Vessel built in Britain that wreaked havoc on Northern shipping until it was finally sunk in 1864
American (know nothing) party
it was named american party in 1855; originated in New York and were strickly aginst immigration.
bloodiest battle of any US war; 4,800 dead and 18,500 wounded
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Stipulated that neither America nor Britainwould fortify or secure exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway.
Cyrus McCormick
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884), inventor of the mechanical reaper
Missouri Compromise
1820 This law allowed 2 states to enter the Union (MAINE and MISSOURI) It also banned slavery in the lands of the Louisiana Purchase, North of the 36, 30' north latitude.
Free Soil Party
Ardent antislavery men in the North, distrusting both Cass and Taylor, organized the Free soil party. they came out foursquare for the wilmot proviso and against slavery in the territories. Going beyond other antislavery groups, they broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements.
Charles G. Finney
was an American newspaperman, story writer, and fantastical novelist, and part time night club owner, whose full name was Charles Grandison Finney, evidently in honor of the famous evangelist.
Elijah Lovejoy
Former Presbyterian minister; established a reform paper: St. Louis Observer; moved to Alton, IL. (Alton Observer); against slavery and injustices inflicted against blacks; is a martyr for the anti-slavery movement for he was killed by a mob in 1835.
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
William T. Sherman
born Tecumseh Sherman, was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861-65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy and criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States
Laird Rams
Two Confederate warships being constructed by John Laird in GB that were designed to destroy Union wood ships that were blockading the South
Charles Sumner
A senator of Massachusettes was a leading abolitionist. He had made himself the most dislike man in the senate. Over the miscarriage of popular sovereignty, he delivered a speech "The Crime Against Kansas."
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
DeWitt Clinton
American politician who as governor of New York (1817-1823 and 1825-1828) was a principal supporter of the Erie Canal (completed 1825).
George Meade
Commanded the Union Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg
John C Fremont
ommissioned by the Senate (especially Benton) to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories (e.g. Pathfinder) glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Trent Affair
Mason and Slidel were going to england to negotiate southern-english alliance on British ship Trent, union navy came aboard and took them prisoner, violated British right to the seas, Lincoln apologized
James Buchanan
President Pierce was succeeded by him. He was strongly under southern influence.
Crittenden Compromise
This compromise would compensate the owners of runaway slaves, the repeal of the N personal-liberty laws, a constitutional amendment to prohibit the federal govn't form interfering with slavery in the S states and another that would restore the Missouri Compromise line for the remaining territory that would guarantee federal protection of slavery below the line.
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
Commonwealth v. hunt
1842) was a landmark legal decision issued by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court on the subject of labor unions. said labor unions were legal as long as there was no violonce involved
John Crittenden
In December, 1860 he promoted a last minute compromise to hold the Union together, the Crittenden Compromise. It consisted of six unamendable amendments to the Constitution
"Higher Law" (Seward)
The most conspicuous leader of the fast growing Republican Party.
William Lloyd Garrison
was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Seneca Falls convention
States, and for that reason, it is often labeled as the birthplace of feminism
Conquered Provinces
descendants of the Spanish and Mexican cnquerors who had once ruled California.
religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT, Church of Jesus Christ & the Latter day saints
Ralph Waldo Emerson
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)
All of Mexico
People that believed strong in the Manifest Destiny wanted all of Mexico to be added to the country which posed many problems and was never done
10% plan
Abe Lincoln's decree that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters int eh pressidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to eh U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation
clipper ships
Fast sailing ship of the mid-1800's, first on was the rainbow, had mast and huge sails, Very fast and America won large share of the worlds sea trade in the 1840s and 50s from this
Northerners who came to the South to teach, work with aid programs, to helo state governments get going again and most of the time to make money. Most white Southerners hate them
Denmark Vesey
United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)
Samuel Slater
British-born textile pioneer in America. He oversaw construction of the nation's first successful water-powered cotton mill (1790-1793).
Samuel Morse
United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)
Winfield Scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
Millard Filmore
A logical nominee because he achieved greatly with the compromise of 1850, but he was not nominated.
The assumption that a person's characteristics are largely inborn. Also known as the nature perspective., Preference for native born Americans and a hatred of immigrants
Draft riots
were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Catharine Beecher
was a noted educator, renowned for her forthright opinions on women's education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of a kindergarten into children's education.
Merrimack and Monitor
was a naval battle of the American Civil War, famous for being the first fight between two ironclads
Cotton Kingdom
Areas in the south where cotton farming developed because of the high demand for cotton, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas (partly Florida)
Freedman's Bureau
gave blacks education
Elizabeth Blackwell
First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.
Stephen Foster
United States songwriter whose songs embody the sentiment of the South before the American Civil War (1826-1864)
name given by former Conferderates to those southerners who supported the shift to power to Congress and the army in the South during Reconstructionist.
Austrian archduke that Napoleon III put in charge of Mexico; was eventually killed by firing squad in 1867 after US threatened to march South
Wilmot Proviso
amendment inroduced in 1846. It stated that slavery should never exist in any of the new territory to be wrested from Mexico. It passed the House twice, but not Senate.
Charles Francis Adams
convinced England to stop making ships for the south during the civil war
Hinton R. Helper
Wrote "The impending crisis of the south," a nonaristocratic white from North Carolina. Hating both slavery and blacks, he attempted to prove by an array of statistics that indirectly the nonslaveholding whites were the ones who suffered most from the millstone of slavery.
Susan B. Anthony
leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions
Walker Tariff
Democratic bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig-backed "Black Tariff" of 1842 under president John Tyler
Military Reconstruction Act
set up martial law (military rule) in the South , nullified Johnson's programs
Cult of Domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Clement Vallandigham
was an Ohio unionist of the Copperhead faction of anti-war, pro-Confederate Democrats during the American Civil War.
Wade Davis Bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
Emma Willard
in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere
Union Party
an alliance between members of the Republican Party who backed incumbent President Abraham Lincoln and Northern Democrats (plus a few anti-Confederate Southerners such as Andrew Johnson) during and after the Civil War.
Alexis De Tocqueville
He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France.
Phineas T. Barnum
was an American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus that eventually became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was a businessman above all else, his profession was pure entertainment,
Lone Star Republic
The texans had carried a flag with a simgle white star after winning independence, they nicknamed their nation the lone star republic
Theodore Dwight Weld
American abolitionist whose pamphlet Slavery As It Is (1839) inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Followers of a Calvanist Baptist minister who taught that the second coming of Christ would occur in 1944
Horace Mann
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859), He became the first secretary of his state to create a board of education in 1837.
Tenure of Office Act
Makes it illegal for president to replace officers who have been confirmed by Congress without Congressional approval
Black codes
understood laws against blacks not written in books, Legal restrictions on blacks, such as cannot serve on juries, no interracial marriage
Pottawatomie-Creek Massacre
John Brown and a band of abolitionist settlers (some of them members of the Pottawatomie Rifles) killed five pro-slavery settlers north of Pottawatomie Creek
Liberty Party
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
John James Audubon
United States ornithologist and artist (born in Haiti) noted for his paintings of birds of America (1785-1851)
Aroostook War
England and American lumberjacks fighting over Maine's boundary.Webster and Lord Ashburton settle dispute
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Force Acts
the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.
Nat Turner
Slave from VA that led group of slaves to kill their slaves holders abd familes. Turner caught and executed on Nov.11, 1831. Slave states stricker control on slave population.
American Colonization society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and got free blacks to move there. One of these colonies Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
Pony Express
Service begun in 1860 that used a relay of riders on horses to deliver mail from Missouri to California in 10 days.
John Brown
He was obsessively dedicated to the abolitionist cause. He killed 5 men, presumed to be proslaveryites.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.
Stephen A. Douglas
37 year old senator, "little giant" who used is pursuasiveness to attempt to convince the North to partially yield by enacting a more feasible fugitive slave law.
Ashburton treaty
Webster-Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Canada, then a colony of Britain
Herman Melville
American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels
Interchangeable parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
The Order Of The Star Spangled Banner
The Order of the Star Spangled Banner (OSSB) was an oath-bound secret society in New York City. It was created in 1849 by Charles Allen to protest the rise of Irish, Catholic, and German immigration into the United States.
Zackary Taylor
die in office he lasted 16 months as president, A Southern slaveholder who opposed the spread of slavery to the territories, 12 president
Salmon P. Chase
was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as Chief Justice of the United States.
Bleeding Kansas
: was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
In 1826, the brothers began to import silk from Asia, and they quickly earned a sizable fortune gave money to abolistionist causes and became very stong abolitionists
James Fenimore Cooper
United States novelist noted for his stories of American Indians and the frontier life (1789-1851)
Dred Scott
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
Ex Parte Milligan
was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled suspension of Habeas Corpus by President Abraham Lincoln as constitutional
Walt Whitman
United States poet who celebrated the greatness of America (1819-1892)
David Wilmot
member of Congress best known for the "Wilmot Proviso" (1846). This was a plan to not allow slavery in any of the land annexed from Mexico after the Mexican-American War. It did not pass, but was considered the first event in a long slide towards the Civil War.
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the US , favored returning the slaves of the Amistad to Africa
New England Immigrant Aid Society
1854 was created to pay antislave settlers to go into Kansas, so when the state voted on whether or not to allow slavery the vote would be on the antislave side.
Bear Flag Revolt
occurred when Sonoma's Mexican military base was captured by rebels and raised a flag which displayed a grizzly bear and the words California Republic. The rebels said they were creating a new nation. The true revolt never occurred because the U. S. Army came and declared war with Mexico.
Francis Parkman
historian with defective eyes that forced him to write in darkness with the aid of a guiding machine; chronicled the struggle between France and England in colonial times for mastery of North America
Peter Cartwright
best known of the Methodist traveling frontier preachers; ill-educated, strong servant of the Lord who spent 50 years traveling from Tennessee to Illinois while calling upon sinners to repent; converted thousands with his bellowing voice and flailing arms; physically knocked out those who tried to break up his meetings
Oliver Wendell Holmes
(SR), prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer, and wit who taught anatomy at Harvard Medical School; nonconformist and conversationalist; among a group of literary lights who regarded Boston as the "hub of the universe"; died at the age of 85, the last among his distinguished contemporaries
David Farragut
Commander of the union navy, captured new orleans
Oneida Community
founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York. The community believed that Jesus Christ had already returned in the year 70, making it possible for them to bring about Christ's millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism).
Sojourner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

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