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Geography Exam 2


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group of peoples who formed a foundation of European ideas and established a major empire extending to India around 300 B.C.
group of people who established an empire around the mediterranean Sea that extended to north-west Europe from the first century B.C.
European tribes that diffused skills in metal-making (bronze and iron) as they moved from the Alpine area around 1000 B.C. into Spain, France, and Britain
Germanic People
Broadly defined group of peoples from northern Europe who began to move south into Germany and other areas of Europe in 500 B.C. Modern Germans, Austrians, Dutch, and the Scandinavians are the most numerous of today's Germanic people.
group of peoples who spread out from Scandinavia from the A.D. 700s, conquering much of northwest Europe, Iceland, and Greenland and influencing events in Russia.
broadly defined group of people who migrated from the east, settling primarily in East Central Europe between approximately 400 and 800 A.D. The Slavs developed into three distinct subgroups: Western slavs, southern Slavs, Montenegrins, and eastern Slavs.
economic system in which goods and services are produced and sold by private individuals, corporations, or governments in competitive markets. The means of production are owned by thos investing capital, to whome workers sell their labor. Linked to democratic government and increasing trade among places and countries.
The system by which one country extends its political control to another territory to economically exploit the human beings and natural resources of the subordinate territory.
the practice of extending the rule of an empire over foreigh lands to expand the lands of the empire
Industrial Revolution
Period of the late 1700s and early 1800s when increasingly complicated machines and chemical processes fueled by inanimate power sources such as water and coal replaced traditional ways of making goods by hand with simple tools. The mass production goods resulted, as did the need for raw materials. The industrial revolution began in England and then spread to other areas of the world.
the linking of a seperate and distinct people ("nation") and a politically organized territory with its own sovereign government ("State")
a country, or division of a country within a federal government.
Nation-State idea
the belief that each people ("nation") must have its own country ("state") in order to be free and govern itself as it desires.
The systematic extermination of an ethnic group, nation, racial, or religious group.
a system in which the workers govern and collectively own the means of economic production. When spelled with a capital "C" communism refers not to the system as it was originally envisioned but rather to the totalitarian systems adopted in countries such as the Soviet Union and China, where small elite groups rule or ruled under the guise of communism
Democratic Centralism
practice of sole governance by the Communist Party, the political party of the working class, because it is believed that only the Communist Party is the true representative of the people.
State Socialism
the Communist Party actively running the political, social, and economic activities of the people.
Planned economy
the Communist practice of the government, rather than the free market, deciding what goods and services need to be produced within a country.
Midlatitude West Coast Climate
a climatic environment dominated by cyclonic weather systems linked to oceanic heat and moisture souces, interspersed with anticyclones. Typically with coolers summers and milder winters than continental interiors on the same latitutde
Mediterranean Climate
a climatic environment that occurs between midlatitude west coast and tropical arid climatic environments, having wet winters and dry summers.
Midlatitude Continental Interior Climate
A climatic environment that is marked by very cold and often dry winters and hjot summers with thundery rain.
Fine-Grained soils developed from windblown deposits.
Acid deposition
dry or wet deposition of acidic material from the atmosphere, often resulting from sulfur and nitrate gases and particles emitted into the air from coal combustion in power plants.
Black Triangle
a heavily polluted industrial area straddling the Polish, Czech, and German borders.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
a military alliance of non-communist European countries and then United States, founded in 1949 to counter the military threat of the Soviet Union. In recent years, former Communist countries have joined the alliance, and Russia has formed a partnership with NATO.
European Union
name adopted by the European Community in 1993, suggesting both an expansion to other European countries following the end of the Cold War and the possibility of a future closer political federation
the idea that differing nations can cooperate so closely for their shared mutual benefit that they can share the same government, economy (including currency), social policies, and even military
the process by which local peoples desire less rule from thier national governments and seek greater authority in governing themselves
border areas of differing countries within Europe where the people within them work together to make transboundary movement easier
Productive Capacity
the total amount of goods a country's industries can produce during a given period of time
Producer Goods
industrial goods used by other industries to make consumer goods
Agglomeration Economies
the total economies achieved by a production unti because of a large number of related economic activities located in the same area
Geographic Inertia
once capital investments are made in factories and infrastructures that give a region agglomeration economies, production will continue there for a period of years after other areas emerge with lower production goods
a rapid fall in manufacturing employment and the abandonment of factories in a once-important industrial region
an acronym for the Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The term was coined in recognition of the close working relationship that these countries have with one another.
Guest Worker
a foreigner who has permission to reside in a country to work but is not a citizen of that country. From the german word, "Gastarbeiter."
the movement of higher-income groups to occupy and improve residences in older and poorer central parts of Western cities.
Agricultural production carried out on fewer and larger farms and limited to smaller areas of higher productivity
The increased output of crops or livestock per area unit of land
The concentration on fewer commercial products within a federal government
The large-scale commercialization of agriculture that places farming within the broader context of inputs of seeds, fertilizer, machinery, and so on, and of outputs of processing, marketing, and distribution.
The production of fewer livestock or crops from the same area
Producer Services
Service industries that are involved in the output of goods and services, including market research, advertising, accountancy, legal, banking, and insurance industries.
The measure of the amount of product generated or work completed per hour of labor
a river valley that was flooded with ocean water after the sea-level rose in the postglacial age
Marketing Gardening
the commercial production of high-cash value, specialty fruit and vegetable crops such as table grapes, raisins, oranges, grapefruits, apples, and lettuce
the desire to gain control over lost territories, or territories perceived to belong rightfully to a group; associated with nationalism.
Ethnic Cleansing
the process by which a dominant group of people in a country causes another ethnic group to leave a region, often using threats or military force
Genocidal Rape
the rape of women of an ethnic group or race in the belief that the women's ethnic group or race will be exterminated after the women are impregnated by the perpetrators' own genetic "seed."
Confucius (Kong Fuzi)
a Chinese administrator who established a system of efficient and humane political and social institutions that became the basis of procedures and ways of life in much of Eastern Asia
the teachings of Chinese philosopher Laozi, who disliked the organized and hierarchical social system of Confucius and advocated a return to local, village-based communities with little outside interference
the traditional religion of Japan, built on ancient myths and customs that promote the national interests and identity
Monsoon Climatic Environment
a tropical climatic environment in which there are wind shifts between summer and winter, bringing heavy rains from oceanic air in the summer and dry winds of interior continental air in winter
Midlatitude East Coast Climatic Environment
a climatic environment with warm-to-hot wet summers and cool-to-cold drier winters
Buffer State
a country that stands between major world powers and helps to reduce direct conflicts between them
an expanded urbanized area that includes several metropolitan areas with over a million people and dominates the economy of surrounding areas. First identified in the northeastern United States covering the area between Boston and Washington D.C.
the movement of people and corporations from older central parts of urban areas to new residential and commercial areas on the city outskirts
the movement of people from metrpolitan urban areas to take up residence and employment in small towns or rural areas
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)
the Japanese government ministry charged with promoting Japanese trade and products abroad
the transformation of rural life in Communist countries such as China and the Soviet Union, in which individual farmers were grouped in cooperatives that took ownership of their land and labor
the organization that controls rural life in Communist countries, including agriculture, industry, trade, education, local militia, and family life
Great Leap Forward
the attempt by the Chinese Communist government in the late 1950s to increase the pace of idustrialization. It failed by ignoring food production at a time when bad weather brought poor harvests and famine
Cultural Revolution
The attempt by Mao Zedong between 1966 and 1976 to change the basis of Chinese society. The disruption held back the country's economic development.
Household Responsibility system
the replacement for communities in rural China after 1976, returning ownership and decision making to individuals and groups that could sell surpluses in open markets.
Han Chinese
The largers group (94%) of people in China. An ethnic grouping based on the administrative culture spread by the Chinese empire in the A.D. 200s and 300s.
Transnational Chinese economy
Economic and trading links established by Chinese people living outside China, especially in Eastern Asia and Anglo America.
Special Economic Zones
zones established by China in 1979 to encourage foreign investment and export-oriented manufacturing in the Southern coastal provinces. Similar zones are found in other countries
a port that collects goods from several countries to trade with the wider world and distributes imports to its immediate area or hinterland. Examples include Hong Kong and Singapore
an unplanned residential sector of urban areas in poorer countries. Housing is often built of any materials that come to hand and does not have electricity, water, or waste disposal.

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