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Unit 5 Review

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Scientific Revolution
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
Johann Sebastian Bach
German baroque organist and contrapuntist
having the sun as the center
Jean Jacques Rousseau
He was committed to individual freedom, but thought that rationalism and civilization corrupt man. Spontaneous feeling was to replace the coldness of intellectualism. Man is born good and needs protection from society. This influenced the Romantic Movement of the nineteenth century. His book, The Social Contract tells how social inequalities develop when people sign a social contract agreeing to surrender to the general will in order to be free. This creates a government as a necessary evil to carry out general will. If general will fails, people can replace it. This has justified actions in the French revolution and in Hitler's regime. He also wrote Emile that attacked society and proposed a new theory of education. He called for focus on logical thinking, reason, love, tenderness, and understanding toward children. He wanted children to be raised naturally and spontaneously in order to raise their emotional awareness.
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector of England
Scientific Method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center
Peter The Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Age of Absolutism
Time period where kings and queens ruled domains with total control over their people.
having the earth as the center
Galileo Galilei
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Louis XIV
- the longest reign in French history, was characterized by a magnificent court and the expansion of French influence in Europe.
Isaac Newton
English philosopher and mathematician: formulator of the law of gravitation.
Constitutional monarchy
constitution that explains the powers of the government and owes allegiance to a monarch
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe.
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Charles I
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
prolific Austrian composer and child prodigy
francois marie arouet, treated unfairly, struggled against legal injustice and unequal treatment
Charles II
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
Eugene Delacroix
French romantic painter (1798-1863)
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion
William Harvey
He showed how heart pumps blood through body
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
Absolute monarchy
a monarchy in which the ruler's power is unlimited (32)
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Divine right of kings
god gave kings the right to rule and kings are answerable only to God
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
William and Mary
Prostestant, married William of Orange ruler of Netherlands and Protestant champion of Europe, invited by Parilament to assume the throne, James II offered no resistence and fled to France
Age of Reason
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions

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