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Ch. 23 WWI

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What was the most significant country to be involved in the chemical and steam industry prior to WWI?
Germany
What made migration easier in Europe prior to the first war?
The emancipation of peasants lessened the authority of landlords.
What invention spurred economic growth in Europe?
Expansion of railway systems.
What was the 2nd Industrial Revolution?
Started after 1850, it expanded the production of steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil.
Who was Henry Bessemer?
An english engineer who discovoered a new process for manufacturing steel cheaply in large quantities.
What feature played an important role in the growth of the chemical industry and Why?
Formal scientific research because it created a direct link between science and the industrial movement.
What was the most significant change for industry and, eventually for everyday life?
The application of electrical energy to production.
Where was the first major public power plant constructed?
Great Britain 1881.
Who invented the internal combustion automobile?
Gottlieb Daimler 1889.
What fed the growth of trade unions and socialists political parties?
Pockets of unemployment that came about when countries outside of western Europe began trading and creating a depression agriculturalists in the west.
Imperialism also opened...
new markets overseas for European consumer goods.
What was the petite bourgeoisie?
New lower middle class made of white-collar worker such as secretaries, retail clerks, and lower-level bureaucrats.
What first spurred the anti-Semitism directed at the thousands of Russian Jews who migrates to western Europe?
Competition for jobs generated social and political discontent.
Where did the most famous and extensive transformation of a major city occur?
Paris, France.
What was a direct result of the middle and working class to seek housing elsewhere due to raised land values and rent?
Commercial development, railway construction, and slum clearance.
What disease broke out as a result of cities being overcrowded and sewage systems not being sanitary?
Cholera
Which country in 1894 made inexpensive credit available to construct housing for poor?
France
What were women restricted from during the turn of the century?
Access to secondary and university education.
What two major developments affected the economic lives of women?
Large-scale expansiom in the variety of jobs available to women outside the better-paying leanred professions. The withdrawal of many married women from the workforce.
Why did unmarried and widowed women primarily have jobs and were employed more than married?
Because it was assumed that a married woman was taken care of by her husband.
Where was a popular place for women to prostitute themselves?
Near large army garrisons or naval bases.
Which class of women, more than any other, became limited to the roles of wife and mother?
Middle-class women.
A major change in the sex of married couples?
The acceptance of a small family size among the middle class.
Where did the earliest statements of feminism arise?
From critics of the existing order (ppl with unorthodox opinions on sexuality, family life, and property.
Where was the moost advanced women's movement held?
Britain
Who were suffragettes?
Derisive name for members of the Women's Social and Political Union, who lobbied for votes for women.
Who led the women suffragettes?
Emmeline Pankhurst
What was the BDFK?
Union of German Women's Organization
How were Jews treated under Russian Rule?
Aliens, gov, undermined Jewish community life, limited the publication of Jewish books, restricted areas where Jews could live, required Jews to have internal passports to move about the country, banned Jews from amny forms of state service, and excluded them from forms of higher education.
Jewish discrinination died a bit after the revolution in 1848...when and why did it come back?
In the 1870's, because of Anti-Semitists' voicing that the Jews were to blame for the economis stagnation of the decade due to Jewish bankers and financal interests.
What were the chief institutions and ideologies at the turn of the century?
Trade unions, democratic political parties, and socialism.
All major European states adopted broad-based, if not perfectly democratic, electoral systems in the late nineteenth-century except?
Russia!
What did the democratization of politics do for socialists?
Presented them with opportunities and required the traditional ruling classes to vie with the socialists for the support of the new working-class voters.
What emerged as the single most important strand of socialism?
Marxism
What does SPD stand for?
German Social Democratic Party
What did Jean Jaures believe about socialism?
That they should cooperate with middle-class Radical ministries to ensure the enactment of needed social legislation.
What did Jules Guesde believe?
He argued that socialists could not, with intergrity, support a bourgeois cabinet they were theoretically dedicating to overthrow.
Who were Fabians?
British Socialists group. Most influential.
What categories was the SPD divided into?
Those who advocated reform and those who advocated revolution.

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