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Three most popular sects of AM medicine were present in mid-19th century? What happened to them?
Thomsonianisim, Eclectic movement, hydropathy (use water to treat their patients)

These sects have now died out
Reasons that AM was popular during 19th century
1. Jacksonian Democracy - centered on a desire for self-reliance and individualism; person could treat self w/o being doctor

2. Profound distrust in allopathic med due to violent treatments being proposed by drs.

3. Many americans lived in rural areas and on frontier where access to physicians was limited

4. Strong tradition of local healers -- Native americans often used as local healers

5. Not many good physicians from Europr were coming to Am to look for new opportunities -- this prompted people in community to become healers
Examples of local healers
1. Midwives - one of most common healers that dev. their expertise in delivering lots of babies; almost always women and began to understand how to take care of sick

2. Ministers - often given dr. type role b/c they are there to help parishioners. (ie. Cotton Mather in Boston). Mather interested in vaccination and thought it was important to think of issues in terms of taking care of community

3. Domestic Manuals - books published that anyone could buy that listed illnesses, symptoms, and treatment
When did AM sects flourish? Describe the trend.
Flourished 150-200 years ago, then decline in popularity, and are now on the rise again
AM sects developed because....?

Hint: heroic
Skepticism to "heoric" medicine, which was going to extreme to treat patient.
Harsh treatments
1. Blood-letting - bleed the body through a vein until desired affect is reached; used commonly when condition was thought to be caused by excess blood; diff. protocols for how much to bleed pt.

2. Purgatives - purge the body of toxins

3. Emetics - anything to induce vomiting

4. Sialogogues - substance used to increase salivation; (ex. mercury); makes pt. salivate a lot and makes gums bleed; came about from time where everyone thought you must clean body out to rid it of toxins
Tools used to rid body of toxins
1. Scarefire - retractable blades use to bleed patients

2. Cups u would heat up and place them on patients backs; would creating suction and heat would create blister

3. medicine cards - cards w/ pics of children to counteract idea that treatments were harsh and dangerous
Homeopathy: creator? when? where did it begin?
Creator: Samuel Christian Hahnemann -- German MD

Reason - became disillusioned with and rejected "heroic" part of allopathic medicine; he thought the body had some natural curative powers that need to be utilized; he learned from the ancients

Began in Germany and migrated to states in 1825
What was the largest AM sect in the 19th century?
Principles of Homeopathy?
Law of Similars - a patient's disease is cured with a drug that causes symptoms of those that are sick; approporiate drugs were found by "provings" - drugs tested on health pts to see if desired symptom resulted

2. Law of Infinitessimals - belief that small dose (very dilute) is more potent for it stimulates the patients's "vital force" -- bleief that the body had its own ways to heal itself; that which increases vital force increases health and body's ability to fight disease

3. Succussion - vial containing durg is beat on leather strap after every dilution, mixing the drug
Why was homeopathy appealing in regards to "provings"?
Homeopathy was based on experiments called provings. This was appealing in 19th century people and to use today because you feel as though the gathering of data that supports your idea makes your idead of treating more plausible
Popularity of Homeopathy?
Initially popular in Europe, then in States. Became so popular b/c u could do it yourself w/o being a doctor or having relationship with pharmacist..
Evidence of popularity of homeopathy?
1. 1844- first American homeopathic med school founded. So, school was opened about 20 years after homeopathy arrived in USA.

2. 1848 - Hahnemann College in Philadelphia was and early and successful homeopathic med school

3. 1860 - more than 2000 homeopathic physicians practicing - not that much less than the number of practicing MDs

4. 1880s - most major American cities had a homeopathic med school
Who became homeopathic physicians?
1. MDs who were disillusioned for various reasons with allopathic medicine and were attracted to scientific approach of homeopathic medicine

It was used by many different segments of society (pres. garfield and lincoln)
Challenges to homeopathic medicine?
Heroic treatments were declining in allopathic medicine because of rise of homeopathic med

1. difficult to practice pure homeopathy, which required very detailed and time consuming and individualized H&Ps

2. Homeopathic Drs. began to adopt allopathic ways to become more efficient

3. Drs. tended to practice electically, taking treatments from many kinds of medicine

4. In early 1900s, Flexner Report led to closing and/or unification of all but 4 homeopathic schools because they were not seen scientific enough
Homeopathic medicine today?
1. Practiced by those who are self trained in homeopathic techniques

2. Immensely popular in Europe

3. Faces questions about its drugs -- how to prove effectiveness and is something so dilute a drug?

4. heavily marketed on the internet and is marketed as self-help medicine
Osteopathy: Founder? Why did he develop it? When?
Founded by Andrew Taylor Still, raised in KS as a son of minister who doubled as a Dr.

Rejected allopathic med after it failed to prevent death of his children from meningitis

Conceived of osteopathy in 1874 and saw this as a true alternative to allopathic medicine
Osteopathy thinking?
Thought of the body as a machine; making the body mechanically sound we put flow of vital force back in balance

still believed drugs to be useless and immoral and abandoned them

Adapted some of the ideas of magnetic healing and believed in vital force
Magnetic healing?
Teaching that an unobstructed flow of magnetic energy (vital force) thru the body was necessary for good health
Vital Force?
Belief that the vital force in body was blood and must have and unobstructed blood flow to be in good health

Manipulations of bone and muscle were often needed in the sick to ensure the free flow of blood and magnetic energy and thus ensure good health
Landmarks of Osteopathy?
1. 1892 - Andrew Taylor Still founds American School of Osteopathy in MO

2. 1897- 700 osteopathic students in various schools, a national association was founded - American Assn. for Advancement of Osteopathy and educational standards began to be set

3. Early 1900s - appearance of osteopathic hospitals; done because they believed they had distinctive treatments and needed a place where they could institute a these treatments. they are also excluded from allopathic hospitals

4. today over 25 million americans see DOs

5. always relatively open to women

6. 1920s - began to teach parm and incorporate new scientific knowledge, such as how to treat diphtheria

7. 1960s & 1970s - osteopathic schools began to require bachelor degree; prior the they didnt not have same requirements as MDs

8. 1950 - turf wars - courts gave DOs privileges in non-osteopathic hospitals; privileges equal to MDs

9. 1973 - DOs given full practice rights
Modern osteopathy
still believe in bone manipulation but now use drugs; can become board certified in same field as allopathic med

have a hard time financially right now
how did osteopathy respond to new knowledge in germ theory and microbiology?
they said that we still have to support the body's natural healing forces, but we have to incorporate new knowledge -- changed views on etiology of disease but not the treatment
Chiropractic Medicine: Who founded it and where was it founded?
Daniel David Palmer in 1895 in Iowa
Meaning of Chiropractic?
chiropractic means to practics with the hand
First patient of Daniel Palmer?
Deaf janitor that he healed with manipulations
Chiropractic beliefs?
Chiropractic medicine believes that disease is due to joint-oriented nerve interference which obstructs flow of innate intelligence -- a vital force that regulates the body's functions and flows in the CNS

2. Innate intelligence connects man's spiritual and physical aspects... manipulation of joins was necessary to restore the free flow of innate intelligence and promote health/equilibrium

3. Improper alignment of bone-on-bone (subluxations) is what intereferes with innate intelligence

4. Doing manipulations on different parts of spine would affect different parts of body
Chiropractic school found by Palmer?
Palmer founded the Palmer School and Infirmary of Chiropractic in 1896. Had a 6 month program with courses similar to those in MD schools.
It became the largest institution of health care practitioners.

Graduated 1000 chiropractics in 1921. Attracted both men and women
AMA's secret slogan?
"chiropractic must die"
1944 GI Bill during WW2 did what?
It funded many men who desired to become chiropractics creating a huge influx in the number of chiropractics.
Change on Chiropractic education... describe the changes
By 1950s, chiropractic education was a 4 year course. National licensing board was established in 1965

1974 - 7.5 million Americans used chiropractics per year

Most popular in the west and midwest; least popular in south and southeast

In 1972, Medicare began paying for it
Alternative Medicine today in terms of objective numbers?
40% of Americans use AM, usually in conjunction with allopathic medicine.

80% do not tell their MDs

1990, 425 million AM visits by patients, more that the allopathic visits

1993, 1.5 billion dollars spent on herbal remedies, most of which were not prescribed but bought over counter

1998 - National Center for COmplimentary and AM was founded

Worldwide herbal meds using by 80% of people
Why is AM so popular?
1. Public has easy access to AM and can educate themselves w/o mystery of allopathic medicine

2. The rise in chronic disease -- ex. chiropractics deal with chronic back pain, arthritis

3. Increasing rejection of paternalism since 1970s

4. Increasing interest in high quality of life5.

5. Faith in scientific breakthroughs has diminished because not all of the research seems to be followed by a cure
Challenges/Risks of AM?
Quality of Care, Quality of Product (How do we regulate the drugs), Quality of Science
What is AM offering our patients?
Attention to individuals and attn to details

Promotes self care and empowers its patients and encourages them to take part in healing process

AM minimized adverse effects

Emphasizes self-healing

Costs less than allopathic medicine usually

Is interested in health promotion and not treatment

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