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AP Mod Vocab 2 2


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The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (the legislature)
Member of the British Parliament and author of "Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought
Edmund Burke
Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.
List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates General in 1789.
Cahier de doléances
A French theologian who established a theocracy in Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination
John Calvin
French existentialist who stated that in spite of the general absurdity of human life, individuals could make rational sense out of their own existence through meaningful personal decision making
Albert Camus
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815.
Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities
Carlsbad Decrees
Law that released suffragettes on hunger strikes from jail and then rearrested and jailed them again
Cat and Mouse Act
The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons.
Catherine de Médicis
An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs
Catherine the Great
Act enabling Catholics to hold public office for the first time in England
Catholic Emancipation Bill
Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy
Count Cavour
A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise
Benvenuto Cellini
Stuart king during the Restoration, following Cromwell's Interregnum
Charles II
Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands
Charles V
The secret police under Lenin and his Communist Party
A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members (lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to the czar
Church Statute of 1721
A middle-class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its goals were self-government, a written constitution, natural rights, limited suffrage, and a l
Classical liberalism
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France
Code Napoléon
The financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies
An intense conflict between the superpowers using all means short of military might to achieve their respective ends
Cold War
First European to sail to the West Indies, 1492
Christopher Columbus
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795
Committee of Public Safety
Another name for the European Economic Community, which created a free-trade area among the Western European countries
Common Market
Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Pius VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the gov't
Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right for the gov't to nominate all French bishops and abbots
Concordat of Bologna
Author of "Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind"
A mercenary soldier of a political ruler
Formerly the Tory Party, headed by Disraeli in the nineteenth century
Conservative Party
Also known as the cadets, the party of the liberal bourgeoisie in Russia
Constitutional Democrats
The theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects, and the state governed according to laws
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding importation of British goods into Europe
Continental System
Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe
Nicolaus Copernicus
Legislation enacted in 1815 that imposed a tariff on imported grain and was a symbolic protection of aristocratic landholdings. They were repealed in 1846
Corn Laws
Conqueror of the Aztecs
Hernando Cortez
Road work; obligation of French peasants to landowners
An economic alliance, founded in 1949, to coordinate the economic affairs of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries
Council for Mutual Economic Aid
The new gov't set up by Lenin following the Red Guard seizure of gov't buildings in November 1917
Council of People's Commissars
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545-1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants
Council of Trent
Overthrow of those in power
Coup d'état
Conflict b/w Russia and Turkey ostensibly waged by Russia to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire; in actuality, to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfe
Crimean War
The principal leader and a gentry member of the Puritans in Parliament
Oliver Cromwell
The November 1938 destruction, by Hitler's Brown Shirts and mob, of Jewish shops, homes and synagogues
Crystal Night
British scientist whose "Origin of Species" (1859) propsed the theory of evolution based on his biological research
Charles Darwin
The provision of U.S. loans to Germany to help meet reparation payments, which were also reduced
Dawes Plan
Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early 19th century
The 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up a constitutional monarchy or republic. The plot failed, but the ideal remained.
Decembrist revolt
Document that embodied the liberal revolutionary ideals and general principles of the philosophes' writings.
Declarations of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War
Defenestration of Prague
The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny
Deductive thinker whose famous saying "cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures
René Descartes

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