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American History Part 2


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Who were the Big Three?
1) United States- Woodrow Wilson
2) Great Britain- David Lloyde George
3) France- George Clemenceau
What was the treaty called that the big three came up with for Germany?
the Treaty of Versailles
In the Treaty of Versailles, what was article 231?
The War Guilt Clause
What did the War guilt clause say?
Germany and Germany alone is guilty for starting the war
What were the 8 things in the Treaty of Versailles that we talked about in class?
1) Article 231
2) Reparations
3) Germany's army was almost eliminated
4) Germany's air force was eliminated
5) Germany's Navy was almost eliminated
6) Created the League of Nations
7) Rhineland
8) Austria-Hungary was going to be split up
Why was Germany ticked at the Big 3?
Because they took away almost all of their military
What happened to the Rhineland?
The Big 3 demilitarized it
How was Austria-Hungary split up?
a) Austria- Germans
b) Hungary-Magiars
c) Yugoslavia- Sorbs, Slabs, Albanians, etc...
d) Czechoslovakia- Czechs, Slovakians
Who had to vote on the Treaty of Versailles to get it ratified by the United States?
The Senate
-Foreign Relations Commitee
Who was the chairman of the foreign relations commitee?
Republican Henry Cabot Lodge
What did Lodge try to do?
Kill the Treaty
What did Wilson do to support the treaty?
Travel the country
What happened in September 1919?
Wilson had a stroke and almost died
When did the Senate vote on the treaty?
November 1919
How many changes were made to the treaty to help get it ratified?
What was the 1st vote voted on?
The amended treaty
What was the 2nd vote voted on?
The original treaty
What treaty did Wilson want passed?
The original treaty
When did the Treaty of Versailles get ratified by the US Senate?
It didn't ever get ratified
Why did the Americans hate the League of Nations?
they all thought, "why should we need to get another countrys permission to do things?"
What rule did Americans believe in after the first World War?
Self Rule - "We govern ourselves!"
What was happening as the first WW was closing & the Peace settlement was being made?
Spanish Infuenza Epidemic (1918-1919)
How many people died during the Spanish Influenza?
-25 million
-600,000 Americans
Why was the Spanish Influenza Influenza Epidemic unique?
It killed people ages 18-35:
-killed people in the best shape
-not nearly as many kids and sr.'s
What was going on during the 20's?
-boom time
Why was it boom time in the US?
a) European economy was in shambles
b) new products were being made
c) Consumerism
What new products were being made during the 1920's?
- automobiles
- radios
- electric irons
- electric refridgerators
- vaccuum cleaners
- washing machines
What happened to wages in the 1920's?
It increased 35%
How was there a change in advertising in the 20's?
before: description of product

after: image
What kind of news was new in the 1920's?
Who came up with the idea for magazines?
Henry Luce
Who did Luce partner with for the first ever magazine?
Briton Hadden
What was the first magazine?
Time Magazine
Who "invented" Time magazine?
Henry Luce & Briton Hadden
What kinds of things were in Readers Digest?
- news
- condensed books
What were magazines made to do?
to cater to the fast-paced lifestyle
What happened to the movie industry in the 20's?
sound was added
What was were movies with sound called?
Who starred in the first "talkie"?
Al Jolson
Who was the first actor who became the idol of most women and why?
- Rudolph Valentino
- He was the first to show his chest on screen
What was the Trial of the Century?
The Scopes Monkey Trial
What did the Scopes Monkey Trial deal with?
Evolution vs. Creation
What was the Butler Law?
- Made it illegal to teach any other theory other than Divine Creation of humans
- Made it illegal to teach evolution
What did Charles Darwin do?
He hypothesised that humans developed from apes
What is the ACLU?
American Civil Liberties Union
What did the ACLU say?
"We must promote freedom."
What did the ACLU hate the Butler Law?
Because they thought it was a violation of freedom of speech
What did the ACLU do to the Butler Law?
-They challenged the constitutionality of the law
-Claimed it was a violation of the 1st ammendment
Who did the ACLU find to be convicted of breaking the Butler Law?
John Scopes
Where did the trial take place?
Dayton, TN
What two things happened for the first time during the trial?
- Hundreds of people went to watch (including newscasters)
- Is was aired on the radio
Who was hired by the ACLU to defend Scopes?
Clarence Darrow
What status did Darrow have?
He was the best lawyer in the country
Who was hired as the prosecuter in the S/M trial?
William Jennings Bryan
Who was William Jennings Bryan?
the most famous man n American history-
write, preacher, ran for president (and almost won)
How much was Scopes charged with and what was the significance to it?
- $100
- It is a law that any conviction of more than $20 must be made by a jury
Who is the Lost Generation?
People who didn't feel like they fit in
What was the name of the people who didn't feel like they fit in?
The Lost Generation
What were the Lost Generation disillusioned about?
1) War
2) Consumerism
Who came up with the name The Lost Generation?
Gertrude Stein
Who were the writer of the Lost Generation?
1) Ernest Hemingway
2) H.L. Mencken
3) Sinclair Lewis
4) F. Scott Fitzgerald
What book/magazine did Ernest Hemingway write?
book: A Farwell to Arms
(an officer that desert the army)
What book/magazine did H.L. Menckin write?
Magazine: The Smart Set
(believed that all religions were false- "it is for weak minded people")
What book/magazine did Sinclair Lewis write?
book: Main Street
(small town America)
(thought small towns were filled with small minded people)
Where was Sinclair Lewis raised?
Sauk Center
What book/magazine did F. Scott Fitzgerald write?
book: The Great Gatsby
("perfect life"-miserable)
What was the Anti-Immigrant Sentiment?
Americans started hating immigrants
What happened as a result of the Anti-Immigrant Sentiment?
1) Rise of the KKK
2) Anti-Immigrant Legislation
What does the KKK mean?
Ku Klux Klan - brotherhood
Who were the enemies of the KKK?
1) Blacks
2) Immigrants
3) Catholics
Why did the KKK hate Catholics?
they obeyed the pope, who was from Rome
What was the KKK called in the 1920's?
the Middle Klan
Why did the Middle Klan hate immigrants?
1) Competition for jobs
2) Immigrants are "different"
What did the KKK do?
Intimidated their "enemies"
Where was the Middle Klan founded?
Stone Mountain, GA
How did the KKK intimidate their "enemies"?
1) Burned crosses
2) Violent attacks
3) Had the brotherhood fire them
4) Lynchings
Who was the head of the Klan in Indiana?
David Stephenson
who was Stephenson's secretary?
Madge Oberholtzer
What was Stephenson convicted of?
- Kidnapping
- Raping
- Murder
What did other Klan members do when they found out about Miss. Oberholtzer?
They quit the Klan
What did the National Origins Act do?
banned immigration from East Asia
What banned immigration from East Asia?
The National Origins Act
What was the start of the Great Depression?
The Stock Market crash
What were the things that happened in America during the Great Depression?
1) Stock Market crash
2) Failure of Banks
3) Decline of agriculture economy
4) Snowball effect
5) Cyclical Nature of Economics
One day after the stock market crash, what happened?
Stocks lost 50% of their value
Why did banks go bankrupt?
- They had money invested in the stock market
- There was a run on banks
- Farmers went bankrupt
How did the depression get worse?
1) Global Depression
2) Dust Bowl
3) Unemployment
How did the lush dirt turn into dust/sand?
- Record high temp
- Record low rain
What was the name of farmers who lost their farms?
What was the rate of unemployment in the 30's?
Who was the president during the depression?
Herbert Hoover
What was the nations belief during the 30's?
Individual Responsibility
What is Individual Responsibility?
Everyone is responsible for themselves
Where did people go during the depression?
Charities (churches)
What were Hoover's plans called?
1) Voluntarism
2) Government spending
What was Voluntarism?
- businesses must volunteer to not lay off workers
- workers must not strike
Why didn't government spending work?
Hoover wasn't willing to spend very much
Where did people live when they lost their homes?
outside cities in "Hooverville"'s (tar paper shacks)
How many people lived in Hoovervilles?
15 million
Who were the candidates for the 1932 election?
Rep- Herbert Hoover
Dem- Franklin Deleno Roosevelt (FDR)
Why did FDR have the advantage in the election of 1932?
1) Poor Economy
2) Bonus Army
What is the Bonus Army?
In the 1920's, the government said they would give veterens $1000 in the year 1945
What two things did FDR do immediately after attaining office?
1) Inaugural Address
2) Declared a bank holiday
What did FDR say in his inaugural address?
"The only thing we have to fear is fear itself."
How long was the bank holiday?
4 days
what was the first law that FDR got congress to pass?
Emergency Banking Act
What other laws did congress pass?
1) Glass Steagle Act
2) Civilian Conservation Corps
3) Works Progress Administration
What did the Glass Steagle Act create?
Federal Deposit Insurance Corps (FDIC)
What did the civilain Conservation Corps do?
Hired people in National Parks & Forests
What did the Works Progress Administration do?
Hired people in cities
What was the term given to FDR's programs?
The New Deal
What were the acts involved in the New Deal?
1) Social Security Act
2) Agriculture Adjustment Act
What did the Social Security Act do?
- Provided money for the elderly
- Unemployment compensation
What did the Agriculture Adjustment Act do?
1) Paid farmers to not produce food on their land
2) Set production limits
What was FDR's intention when he created the New Deal?
Create a safety net
to provide a permanent means of support
What became popular during the depression?
Comic Books
- superman
- batman
Why did comic books become so popular?
people were looking for an escape from:
1) the depression
2) WW2
Who became the dictator of Germany in the 1930's?
Adolph Hitler
What is a dictator?
One who has absolute authority in a country
What does Lebensraum mean?
Living space
What did Hitler want more of?
living space
What did Hitler use as an excuse for taking over countries?
It made Hitler look like he was only making Germany into a bigger country with it's own people
What did Hitler do to the Rhineland in 1936?
He sent thousands of soldiers into it
What was the Anschluss in 1938?
When Hitler took over Austria
What did Hitler demand?
That the Sudetenland be given to Germany
What was the Sudetenland known as?
a part of Czechoslovakia
What did the USA, France, and Great Britain do as a result of Hitler's movements?
Nothing until he started verbally threatening Poland
What was the conference called that Germany, France, and Great Britain held?
The Munich Conference
What was the conclusion of the Munich Conference?
Germany would get the Sudetenland, and in return he promised not to take over the rest of Czechoslovakia.
Who was the prime minister of Great Britain?
Neville Chamberlain
What was Chamberlain bragging about after the conference?
about giving "peace in our time"
When did Hitler invade Czechoslovakia?
March 1939
What did France and Great Britain say about Poland?
"If Germany invades Poland, we'll go to was with Germany."
When did Germany invade Poland?
September 1, 1939
What did France and Great Britain do as a result of Germany invading Poland?
They declared war on September 3, 1939
What was America's response to the European war?
1) We were to preoccupied with the depression
2) believed in isolationism
What were the neutrality Acts supposed to do?
make sure America didn't get sucked into another European war
What did the Neutrality Acts say?
1) In times of war, the US will not sell weapons to either side
2) In times of war, non-military goods can be sold to either side, but only on a cash and carry basis
What was America's public Perception of the war?
- Germany was in the wrong
- Germany was not a threat to National Security
What was the first change in the Neutrality Act?
Allies could buy weapons from the US, but only on a cash and carry basis
What did America call the war in Europe?
The phony war
What did Hitler use on all of Europe?
Blitzkrieg (lightning war)
Who fell to Hitler in the end of 1940?
What caused America change their thinking of the war?
the fall of France
-they began to think that Germany was a threat to National Security
Who was the dictator of Italy?
Benito Mussolini
What is fascism?
1) Anti-democracy
2) Anti-communist
3) Pro-war
What did FDR do that no other president has done?
he was elected to president for 4 terms
How does the USA eventually abandon neutrality?
1) Burke-Wadsworth Act
2) Lend-Lease program
-"Weapons could be sold to a country on a lend-lease basis if it was in the interest to of the USA's national security
3) US extended lend-lease to the SU
4) The Atlantic Charter was created
5) Pearl Harbor was attacked
who was the dictator of the soviet Union when Germany invaded them?
Joseph Stalin
What did the USA say about the Soviet Union?
The enemy of my enemy is my friend
Who was Great Britain's leader?
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
What was the US and GB's common goals?
They both wanted the destruction of Nazi Germany
What was the Atlantic Charter?
It said that US & BG had a common goal
What was December 7, 1941 called?
A day that will live in infamy
Why did the US not like Japan?
Because they invaded China
What did the US do to Japan?
Created a trade embargo with them
What is a trade embargo?
"There will be no trade"
What 2 things did the US refuse to sell to Japan?
1) Steel
2) oil
What were Japan's choices?
1) Get out of China
2) Take oil from other countries
What did Japan do so they could take goods from other countries?
Attacked Pearl Harbor.
-They wanted to take out the US's navy
The US declared war on Japan after Pearl Harbor. What else happened after that?
Germany declared war on the USA
What was teh War Relocation Authority?
an agency that put 100,000 Japanese Americans in concentration camps
What is another word for Concentration camps?
Internment Camps
What were Americas theories as for what they should do with the war in Europe?
1) Massive invasion of Europe immediately
2) Wait, build up forces, then have a massive invation
Who wanted which theories?
Soviet Union - Theory 1
Great Britain - Theory 2
When was the massive invation?
June 6, 1944
What was the massive invation called?
What 3 goals did America have to do before the massive invation?
1) Weaken the Luftwaffa (german airforce)
2) destroy German Factories
3) Harm Germans Psychologically
Where did d-day take place?
Normandy Beaches, France
What began the victories for the Allies?
What Germany's last offensive?
The Battle of the Bulge
When were the Allies in Berlin?
April 1945
What happened on April 30, 1945?
Hitler commited suicide
When did the was in Europe come to an end?
May 8, 1945
What was going on in the War in the Pacific?
Island Hopping
what was the Manhattan Project?
dozens of scientists with the goal of making an atomic bomb
When was the bomb created?
summer 1945
What was Trumans warning to Japan?
Potsdam Declaration
Who was the president of the US during WW 2?
Harry Truman
What did the Potsdam Declaration say?
Japan had until August 3rd to surrender unconditionally or be completely destroyed
When was the first bomb dropped?
August 6, 1945
What were the names of the two cities that were bombed called?
1) Hiroshima
2) Nagasaki
What was the name of the plane that dropped the bomb?
Enola Gay
Japan eventually surrendered under one condition. What was it?
they get to keep their emperor: Hirohito
What was the significance of WW2?
1) Beginning of the Cold War
2) United States emerged as a world power
3) millions of people died
4) baby boom
What is a Cold War?
Hostility, but no fighting

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