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20th Century America


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Dalton Trumbo
One of the Hollywood 10. Spent 10 months in prison after being found guilty on communism. First to use name in directing Spartacus. Won academy awards while blacklisted. Moved to Mexico and wrote under assumed names.
J. Parnell Thomas
Chairman of the committe to try suspected communists. Attacked the Motion Picture Industry. Claimed FDR had sabatoged the capitalist system. Later found to have non-existent payroll names and keeping the money. Jailed with wo of the Hollywood 10.
John Henry Faulk
Sued the Red Channels and won. Cost him his marriage and career. Ended up selling enclyclopedias door to door. Put a stop to the blacklisting.
Whittaker Chambers
Spy, translator of Bambi. Closet homosexual. Claimed Alger Hiss was a spy which helped Richard Nixon to come to national prominence by prosecuting Hiss.
Joseph McCarthy
Claimed he had a list of governmental employees who were communists. Created Foreign Relations committee. Few stood up against him for fear of being smeared. Own behavior during the hearings showed the real him. Censured by the senate 67 to 22. Never convicted anyone of communism.
A. Philip Randolph
Organizer of the 1963 march on Washington. Met with FDR to end desegregation did not work but did create Fair Employment Practices Commission.
Port Chicago Disaster
July 1944, two munition ships blew up killing 202 black men. 50 black loaders refused to return to work. If too dangerous for white soldiers too dangerous for them too. Court-martialied. Resulted in black sailors and white sailors loading ammunition. Black soldiers assigned to combat now too. Navy became first branch to desegregate.
Joe Louis
25 title defenses, nicknamed the brown-bomber, finest heavy weight champion, helped with propoganda during the war. Changed attitudes
Jackie Robinson
4 sport athelete at UCLA, honorable discharge from army. Signed by Brooklyn dodgers, chosen because he could control temper and not fight back. Won rookie of the year, played 10 years and retired after trying to trade him with Giants. Desegregated baseball
Larry Dobie
First African American in League, brought up by Bill Veeck, also desegregated pro-basketball, in fore runner of NBA , 2nd man to desegregate baseball, first on world series winning team
Sipuel v. University of Oklahoma
Denied admittance because of race. State ruledin 1948 that must provide education equal to whites. Created Langston University School of Law
1949- U. of Oklahoma admitted first African American to attend all white law school
Brown v. Board of Education
1954, decided that segregation was unconstitutional, overthrowing Plessy v. Ferguson. Unanimous decision. One of several cases heard but was first in court docet because of ABC order
Little Rock Central High Incident
Gov. Orval Faubus announced he ordered the Arkansas National Guard to monitor the school. On Sept 3, 9 black students were kept from entering the school by the Guard. Judge Davies granted an injuction, mob of 1000 people prevented the students from returning to the school. Eisenhower ordered 10000 national guardsmen and on Sept 25 the school was desegregated. Went worldwide soviets and Western Europe criticized the United States.
Emmett Till
14 yeard olf black boy, whistled at white woman. Woman's husband killed him. Sold their story after beign acquitted on how they killed him. Spark that mobilized the civil rights movement. 3 months later the Montgomery Bus Boycott occurred.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Founded in Raleigh, Organized and directed student sit-ins. Ella Baker part of the NAACP and SCLC, needed focus on local changes not national, based sit-ins in individual commuities to create changes
Congress of Racial Equality
Challenged segregation in public accomodations in the north. Slogan was making equality a reality
Charged with helping provide secrets to Dr. Fuchs, there was conflicting evidence, first civilians put to death for espionage, Julius was a member of the party, Executed in 1953 under the Espionage Act of 1917 by the electric chair
1950s Family
Myth that the mom was sexy, family was happy, nuclear family was norm
lower divorce rate
2 parent household in theory
men away from home 80% of workign day, burden placed on women, women became mothers earlier, divorce rate spiked after WWII, tv reinforced image of family ideolized image of relationship between parent and family, most mothers worked despite the idea of stay at home moms, many tried to be like tv families and were upset that they could not, male pride- I make enough money so my wife does not have to work
Bomb Culture
Movies: Invasion of the Body Snatchers (play on McCarthism, communists turn you into pods), Deadly Mantis, It came from Outer Space, Godzilla = All was paranois because of bomb and communists

Comic Books- Attomic Attack, Atom-Age Combat - did not understand power of the bomb

Twilight Zone, Last Man on Earth theme

Our Friend the Nuclear Bomb, Fall out shelters
1950's Culture
Hula-hoop = Knerr and Merlin, 20,000 sold per day, Japan and Soviets banned saying emptiness of American Culture

Home ownership rose, heated by gas now, flush toilets

one tv per household with 3 or 4 stations, one phone in house, kids had small radio in room listen to rock and roll



soda shops, diners, drive-ins, dances at the hop
most communication was face to face

playboy magazine

avon, big hair, capri pants, letter jackets, poodle skirts, pointed glasses, Elvis, pixie-cut, ducktail, the flip, brylcreem

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