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Psychopathology Substance Abuse

Terms

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Depressants
Sedatives that are calming (barbituates), hypnotic that are sleep inducing, anxiolytic that are anxiety reducing (benzos), effects like large doses of alcohol, all influence GABA
Withdrawl
Unpleasant side effects as drugs leave your system
Cocaine
Short lived vigor and reduce fatigue, blocks reuptake of dopamine, slow addiction development, can by psychologically addicted too
Substance intoxication
Injesting a substance so much that you recieve a physiological high
Substance Related Disorders
Use and abuse of psychoactive drugs, psychophysiological and behavioral effects, significant impairment and costs
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Rare, Frequent aggressive outbursts, leads to injury or destruction, few controlled treatment studies
Stacking
Using more than one steroid at the same time
Amphetamine
Produce elation, vigor and reduce fatigue, folled by fatigue and depression, enhance release and blocks reuptake of norephrine and dopamine, hallucinations and stay awake for days, get older appearence, high BP, heart racing, chills, nausea,
Marijuana
Tetrahydrocannabinol, brings mood swings, paranoia, hallucinations, impairment in motivation, legal form is marinol, withdrawal and dependence uncommon
Kleptomania
Can't resist stealing unnecessary items, rare, comorbid with mood disorder and substance abuse disorders
Pyromania
Irresistable urge to set fires, less than 4% of arsonists, little etiological and treatment research
Opiods
Heroin, Opium, codeine, morphine, mortality rates high for addicts, at increased risk for HIV
Social and Cultural Dimensions
Exposure to drugs by media family and peers, see parents using it and think its acceptable, societal views of abuse as either a sign of moral weakness in a failure of self control or sign of a disease caused by underlying processes
Hallucination Persisting Syndrome
Hallucinations and psychotic side affects that persist past drug usage, usually from LSD
Opiate
Narcotic like chemical in the opium poppy
Cycling
Using steriods for an amount of time, then witholding from using them, them using them again
Pathological gambling
3-5% of adult Americans, treatment similar to substance dependence, treatment studies underway
Substance abuse
Using a substance and it causes impairment and problems for you, spend time getting high and finding drug
Wernickes Disease
Long time deficiency of vitamen B, confused state, lose muscle coordination early on, from alcohol
Aversive treatment
Drugs that make use of the drugs extremely unpleasant, antabuse for alcoholism, silver nitrate for nicotine, can use psychological treatment that pictures self sick after drug use
Principle of Equifinality
Different ways to get to the same end, whether biological or social reasons, everyone ends up addicted
Addiction
Compulsive engagement in reinforcing behavior, not a DSM term, even though dependence established it is only an addiction if in social context
Clonodine
Helps people with withdrawal symptoms as they are trying to get off drugs, same with benzodiazopene and tricyclics
Comprehensive treatment and prevention program
Throws in all treatments, individual and group therapy with aversion therapy and convert sensitization, contingency management (stim control), community reinforcement, relapse prevention, preventative efforts via education
Hallucinogens
Alter perceptions of the world, produce delusions, paranoia and hallucinations, pupils dialate,
Inhalants
Found in volatile solvents, breathed into lungs, rapidly absorbed and dispersed and similar to alcohol intoxication, tolerance and prolonged withdrawal, risk death with use, risk liver and renal damage, eats away at your brain
Agonist Substitution
Substitute safer drug with similar chemical composition, methodone or nicotine gum, doesn't work alone, need CBT
Biological influence
Runs in families, genetic predisposition, diathesis for alcohol is tolerance, temperamental characteristic, psychopathology and/or dopamine NT system sensitivity
Impulse control disorders
Increased anxiety prior to an act, sense of relief following an act, more like OCD, impairment of social and occupational functioning, most are rare
Substance use
Injesting a substance
Depressant Characteristics
Depress inhibitory centers of the brain, lose motor control, slur speech, memory loss, can depress conscious awareness, specific target is GABA but affects several neurotransmitters
Vascular Dementia
Stepwise pattern of worsening, lose major functioning, then stable, then major loss, mind is first to go then muscles, from alcohol
Progression to Drug Abuse
No use, use, misuse, abuse, dependence
Opiod withdrawl symptoms
Can be lasting a severe, comparable to having a week long flu
Family and Genetic influence
Has genetic component, most focus on alcoholism, genetic differences in alcohol metabolism, how liver processes drug, how fast it clears your body, gender differences in metabolizing alcohol
Trichotillomania
Can't resist pulling hair, 1-5% college students, mostly female, warning sign for anxiety disroders, Clomipramine and antipsychotics have nasty side effects, Habit Reversal Therapy is CBT that is better than meds
Ecstasy and Ice
Amphetamines, effects similar to speed but no comedown, 2% college students use, both have high risk of dependence
Psychosocial Treatments
Inpatient and outpatient care are both equally bad, controlled use encouraged in europe, abstinence encouraged in US, Community support programs like AA strongly encouraged, goal is social support
Substance dependence
If you experience tolerance or withdrawl to a substance
Alcohol
Most adults view selves as light users, 50% US uses, 15 million Americans dependent, rates highest among caucasians and native americans, males use more, associated with violence due to inhibition loss
Stimulant Characteristics
Most widly consumed drug in US, increase alertness and energy, amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine and caffeine
Neurobiological influence
Drugs affects pleasure center of brain like dopamine, midbrain and frontal cortex, Gaba inhibited which turns off inhibition of pleasure center,
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Can range mild to serious, ADHD, mental retardation, physical deformaties that resemble downs
Opiod characteristics
Substances that produce narcotic effects, activate body's enkephalins and endorphins, fatal in high doses, referred to as analgesics, make you drowsy so you don't notice the pain, doesn't target sourse of pain
Psychological influence
Reinforcement from self medication and tension reduction, means to cope with negative affect, cycle of reward and punishment so that one learns if they drink alcohol they delay the punishment, expectancies influence drug use and relapse
Behavioral CBT Approaches
Functional analysis is stimulus control where you don't put yourself in the situations that you normally do the bad behavior, coping skills training, cognitive restructuring
LSD
Most common hallucinogenic drug, rapid tolerance, uncommon withdrawal symptoms, can produce psychotic delusions and halluciations
Nicotine
Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to produce relaxation and pleasure, highly addictive, relapse rates same as alcohol and heroin, users keep steady level in their bloodstream
Designer Drugs
Produced by pharmaceutical companines for a disease, ecstasy, MDEA, ketamine, heighten auditory and vsual perception, can produce dependence and tolerance
Tolerance
Must up the amount of substance taken to get same high
Caffiene
Blocks reuptake of adenosine, small doses elevate mood and reduce fatigue, 90% america uses, can result in tolerance and dependence,
Integrative model
Exposure or access to a drug is necessary, drug use depends on social and cultural expectancies, used for pleasurable effects, stress interacting with pschological, genetic, societal and learning factors
Antagonist Substitution
Drugs that block or counteract pleasurable drug effects, naltrexone for opiate
Delirium Tremors
Hallucinations and big body shakes, serious withdrawl sympton from alcohol
Jellineks Model
Prealcoholic stage with no consequences for drinking, Prodromal stage with heaving drinking and few outward signs, Crucial stage with frequent binges most nights, chronic stage with most activities of individual consumed with getting more alcohol
Anabolic Steroids
Synthesized from testosterone, use to increase body mass, long term mood disturbances and physical problems, reverse anorexia or muslce dysmorphia, can be used for asthma or allergies

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