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Western Civ Exam #2


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Industrial Revolution
the shift from an agrarian, handicraft, labor-intensive economy to an economy dominated by machine manufacture, specialization of tasks, or division labor, factories, and cities, and a worldwide market for goods, services, and capital.
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
England, Britain
What started it?
From 15th-18th century, western Europe accumulated wealth. Improved agriculture and increased population.
Population explosion
18th century, enormous growth in rural population. Broke up traditional patterns of farming...a "green revolution" and new and different ways of utilizing land and labor. Better nutrition, better health, more births, fewer deaths
underdeveloped land was brought under cultivation; common land once used for grazing animals was claime as private property
Cotton textiles
first industry to grow at an unprecedented rate. Spinning jenny. Brought workers together then to factories to share resources. Weavers and spinners invented simple devices modeled after machines already in use.
Steam power
steam engines ran on coal or wood. Steam powered transportation. With steam, work was revolutionalized because weaker, younger, and less-skilled workers could perform the few simple tasks.
were more expensive but more flexible. Continental governments expende major efforts to develop rail networks.
In France - investors were liable for a corporation's debts only in proportion to the number of shares they owned.
Darby Family
a family of iron manufacturers that developed new ways of producing the precious metal of industrialization (wrought iron i think)
Principal form of wealth?
how much property you owned
people made the move from rural areas into cities that became a place of manufacturing and industry.
which class dominated during industrialiation?
middle class (bourgeois)
Domestic system
forced children into urban labor by providing a middleman who did piecework
King Ludd's Men
revolutionary workers who responded to harsh conditions by destroying machinery and engaging in other acts of violence. They were sad because of the harsh conditions and low wages
3 kinds of city workers
artisans, factory workers, and servants
this is where the miners faced cave-ins, explosions, and deadly fumes
trade unions
Started as "friendly" or "mutual aid" societies and cooperatives to help themselves when they were out of work or sick. Most trade unions were illegal for a while, but they made headway in protecting their members from unemployment and dangerous working conditions.
English Factory Acts
a series of measures that limited the hours of those who labored in mines and factories. Also required children to go to school for 2 hours a day. At first people were against it because they needed the money, but they realized it was the best thing to do.
New Poor Law
required anyone receivning assistance to live in a prison-like workhouse. Legislators thought only those who were truly needed would submit to such conditions just to receive a meal and shelter.
What WAS the Industrial Revolution?
"The Great Discontinuity" (before, just slow occasional economic growth, but now a standard, sustained growth), Technological Breakthrough
How did the Industrial Revolution get started?
Growth of commerce, population growth, agricultural change, capitalism, and political climate (Britain)
How did the Industrial Revolution proceed?
Technology (change of attitudes, mass of confidence), transportation (railroads), Finance & Stockholders, and the Wonders of Consumerism (advertising, WANTS vs. NEEDS)
tradition over reason, hierarchy over equality, and community over the individual
secured the liberty and equality proclaimed by the Revolution
sought to liberate subject people and unify broken nations
plea for the liberation of human emotions and the free expression of personality
Elements of romanticism
discover in the human soul the freedom and creativity that had been squashed by habits, values, rules, and standards. emphasized human uniqueness and diversity
The Confessions
written by Rousseau, expressed the passive subjectivism that was to characterize the Romantic Movement.
William Blake
wrote "The Reasoning Power of Man an Incrustation over my Immortal Spirit." He was a British poet, artist, and mystic.
William Wordsworth
wrote "the Lyrical Ballads" and held that poetry (imagination and feelings - not mathematics and logic) yield the highest truth
Positive and Negative impacts of the Romantic movement
Positive - shed light on a side of human nature that the philosophes often overlooked and undervalued.
Negative - served as background to the extreme nationalism. undermined respect for the rational tradidiont of the Enlightenment
not seeing the world as something objective, that is existing independently of individual consciousness. Rather, they held that human consciousness, the knowing subject, builds the world and determines its form.
David Hume
Scottish empiricist and skeptic that cast doubt on the view that scientific certainty was possible. Wrote "Treatise of Human Nature" and "Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding". said that science cannot demonstrate a necessary connection between cause and effect. Says sense perception is the only legitimate source of knowledge
Percy Bysshe Shelley
poured out an incessant stream of poetry, prose, and translations from five languages; a radical in politics who was inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution
Immanuel Kant
German philosopher who wrote "Critique of Pure Reason". He rejected Hume's underlying premise that all knowledge derives from sense experience.
G.W.F. Hegel
German philosopher that constructed an all-embracing metaphysical system that attempted to explain all reality and uncover the fundamental nature and meaning of the universe and human history. He synthesized the leading thoughts of the day.
Edmund Burkeu
Wrote "Reflections on the Revolution in France". Was an Anglo-Irish philosopher and statesman who wanted to warn his countrymen of the dangers inherent in the ideology of the revolutionaries. He developed a coherent political philosophy, which served as a counterweight to the ideology of the Enlightenment and the Revolution
Laissez faire
a free economy, in which private enterprise was unimpeded by government regulations, was as important as political freedom to the well-being of the individual and the community. Government should not interfere with the market
Thomas R. Malthus
an Anglican cleric and professor of history and political economy who wrote "essay on the principle of population". He asserted that population grows at a much faster rate than the food supply, resulting in food shortags, lower wages, etc.
David Ricardo
wrote "Principles of Political Economy". Supported Malthus in saying that higher wages lead workers to have more children causing an increase in the labor supply.
Democracy in America
an analysis of the nature, merits, and weaknesses of an American democratic society. Based on de Tocqueville's travels to the U.S.
any body of belief or program possessbed by a group (country, party, etc.) which aims at specific political ends and interprets social and economic events and institutions in light of those ends. Different from worldview in that ideologies don't care about afterlife or religion, it focuses on politics and government
Key features of Romanticism
1st half of 19th century, focused on feeling, style, individualism, nnate perception, and emotion
Romanticism's importance and contributions
inspiration, poetry, visual arts, music
Dangers of Romanticism
If one is so caught up in emotion, you forget about reason an dmight do things you later regret.
Conservatism's key features
Tradition, Order, and The State (want the state over the individual b/c of its ability to enforce the law)
Conservatism's importance and contributions
appeals to people who want stability
Dangers of Conservatism
shy away from revolution, don't want change
Dangers of liberalism and democracy
support party only out of selfish interest
popular sovereignty - rule by the people. 2 important theorists were Thomas Paine and Jeremy Bentham
Thomas Paine
wrote "The Rights of Man". thought that superstition, intolerance, and despotism had interfered with human progress in the past and he supported the American and French Revolutions. He said the only legit government was representative democracy.
Jeremy Bentham
he rejected the doctrine of natural rights; the central fact of human existence is that humans seek to gratify their desires and prefer pleasure to pain. Human beings are motivated soley by self-interest.
demaned the creation of a new society built on cooperation and not competition. Also romantics - dreamed for a new social order, a future utoia, where each individual could find happiness and self-fulfillment. Emphasized COMMUNITY.
Saint Simon
renounced his title during the French Revoltion and enthusiastically preached the opportunity for a new society, he argued that scientific knowledge would bind society. He thought that industrial society constitutes a new stage in history, that unchecked individualism is detrimental to society and that creative and collective planning is necessary to cope w/ social ills
Charles Fourier
believed that society conflicted with the natural n eeds ot human beings and that this tension was responsible for human misery.
resolved to improve the lives of his employees without destroying profits. He raised wages, upgraded working conditions, refused to hire children under 10 and provided workers w/ neat homes, food, and clothing all at reasonable prices.
Johann Gottfried Herder
a prominent German writer who conceived the spirit of people. His emphasis on the culture of a people and his assertion that an individual is defined as a member of a specific culture or nation stimulated a national consciousness.
Congress of Vienna
Representatives of European powers convened to draw up a peace settlement. Nations included Britain, Russia, France, Prussia, and Austria
From Austria, had organized the coalition that triumphed over Napoleon. He hated nationalism and liberalism. He believed that domestic order and stability depended on rule by monarchy and respect for aristocracy
represented France in the Congress of Vienna. He sought to remove from France the stigma of the Revolution and Napoleon. He thought that European states should concern themselves with the well-being of the European community as a whole.
Concert of Europe
Russia, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, and France alliance that acted together to preserve the Congress of Vienna. Tried to repress nationalist uprisings but it didn't work.
liberal officers representing the aristocracy who arose and were struck down by Tsar Nicholas I.
Revolutions of 1830
started in France, it sent shockwaves to Belguim, Poland, and Italy. Wanted to establish a liberal government.
Rotten boroughs
sparsely populated regions that sent representatives to the House of Commons, while many densely populated factory towns had little or no representation.
Reform Bill of 1832
extended suffrage and allowed almost double the amount of people to vote.
reformers that agitated for Democratic measures such as universal manhood suffrage, the secret ballot, salaries, etc. REFORM rather than REVOLUTIONS
The February Revolution
the instance in which Louis Philippe abdicated; France became a republic - when soldiers accidentally fired directly into a crowd and killed many people.
King Louis Philippe
he had no intention of moving forward into a democracy. Under him, France was unable to liberate oppressed nationalities throughout Europe.
June Days
a revolt against poverty and a cry for the redistribution of property, the workers stood alone and people saw them as barbarians.
Carol schurz
saw the uprising in France as an opportunity for reform in Germany; he was the leader of the revolutionary activities in Bonn.
Frankfurt Assembly
national assembly charged with the task of creating a unified and liberal Germany
predominated in the Hungarian lands. Drawn to liberal and modern ideas and fearful of uprisings, they demanded local autonomy for Hungary
Louis Kossuth
a member of the lower nobility, called for a social reform and a deepening of national consciousness. Led the magyars and demanded local autonomy
"Five Glorious Days"
over this course of time there was much fighting and the people of Milan were able to liberate themselves
Pattern for 1848 Revolutions
Ousts old regime
Revolutionaries quarrel
Comback of old regime, w/ changes
General Preconditions
Metternich approach, legacy of Enlightenment, and French Revolution, Ideologies developing, middle class growth, urbanization
decline of Romanticism
End of Revolutionary age
Less obstacles to industrialization
the dominant movement in art and literature that opposed the romantic veneration of the inner life and romantic sentimenality; turned attention on external world and concentrated on social conditions
Gustave Courbet
exemplified realism in painting, he painted common peple in commonplace scenes.
Madame Bovary
A masterpiece of realist literature, art that was to rise about personal feelings and nervous susceptibilities. Personality of author was absent.
Charles Dickens
a novelist who criticized oppressive institutions and practices at home and abroad. Helped awaken the moral conoscience of his day
Emile Zola
leading naturalist novelist who had immense confidence in the scientific method and was conviced that it applied to literature.
Henrik Ibsen
the leading realist playwright who examined the commercial and professional classes, their ambitions. His dramas drew attention to bourgeois pretensions, hypocrisy, and social conventions
viewed science as the highest achievement of the mind, rejected metaphysics, restricted human knowledge to only what could be experienced
Auguste Comte
an engineer with scientific training, he called for a purely scientific approach to history and society. Rested on sure knowledge known empirically.
Charles Darwin
an English naturalist who formulated the theory of evolution, made biology an objective based on general principles
Natural Selection
determines which members of the species have a better chance of survival
Social Darwinism
struggle for existence and survival of the fittest, brutal economic individualism and political conservatism
Ludwig Feuerbach
A german philosopher and theologian who argued that the starting point of philosophy should be the human being and the material world, not God; human beings believe in the divine because they seek assistance and fear death
the seizure of power by the working class and the destruction of capitalism
Communist Manifesto
called for a working class revolution to overthrow the capitalist system
Class conflict
struggle between those who own the means of production and those whose labor has been exploited to provide wealth for the upper class
the exploited wage earners
by abolishing the state, the individual could live a free and full life; they advocated revolutionary terrorism
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
believed that people would deal justly with each other, respect each other, and develop their full potential in a society
Mikhail Bakunin
contributed to shaping the Russian anarchist tradition; he devoted himself to organizing secret societies that would lead the oppressed in revolt
John Stuart Mill
showed the transition from laissez-faire liberalism to a more socially conscious and democratic liberalism; he wrote "On Liberty", freedom of thought and expression was a necessary preconditionn for the shaping of a rational, moral, and civilized citizen.
T.H. Green
argued that the do-nothing state advocated condemned citizens to destitution, ignorance, and despair; the state must preserve individual liberty and at the same time secure the common good through self-development
Herbert Spencer
rejected the idea that "evils of all kinds should be dealth with the State", he wouldn't abandon the idea that the state was evil and oppressive.
Women's Suffrage Movement
drew up a declaration of statements which broadened the Declaration of Indpendence. "All men and women are created equal"
"the politics of reality". Practitioners of this respected power and knew how to wield it. Focused on the actual world, dismissed ideals as illusory. Counterpart of realism and positivism
secret society that had clubs in every state in Italy. Members drawn from middle class and army. Forced King Ferdinand I to grant a constitution and a parliamentary government
Giuseppe Mazzini
dedicated his life to the creation of a united and republican Italy. Both a romantic and liberal. Founded Young Italy
the chief minister of Piedmont-Sardinia that became the architect of Italian Unity
led one thousand red-shirted adventurers and patriots. They were determined to liberate the land from its Bourbon ruler, and they succeeded.
powerful aristocrats who owned vast estates farmed by serfs and were exempt from most taxes and dominated local governments in their territories
a customs union established by the German states under Prussian leadership. It abolished tariffs between the states
William I
became king of Prussia when Frederick William IV died. He regarded Austria as the chief barrier to the extension of Prussian power in Germany
was asked by king William to lead the battle against Parliament
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866, Prussia assembled its forces and overran Austrian territory
Franco-Prussian War
completed the unification of Germany
The Settlement of 1867
split the Hapsburg territories into Austria and Hungary. The two retained a common ruler, Fracis Joseph who was emperor of Austria dnd king of Hungary
Sudeten Germans
demanded that Austria remain a centralized state governed by a German-dominated bureaucracy
South slavs
Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in Austria that differed from that of the Czechs. They had a foreign state to encourage their national hopes
Extreme nationalism
concerned exclusively with the greatness of the nation. They rejected the liberal emphasis on political liberty
Volkish thought
the most ominous expression of German nationalism. sought to bind together the German people through a deep love of their language, traditions, and fatherland
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
an Englishman whose fascination with Germanism led him to adopt German citizenship
affords a striking example of the perennial appeal, power, and danger of mythical thinking - of elevating to the level of objective truth ideas that have no basis in fact but provide all-encompassing, emotionally satisfying explanations of life and history
Edouard Drumont
a French journalist who published Jewish France which argued that the Jews, racially inferior and believers in a primitive religion, had gained control of France
mob violence
a movement advocating the return of Jews to Palestine, their historic homeland
Theodor Herzl
the founder of modern Zionism. He wrote stories and plays and worked as a journalist
Protocols of the Elders of Zion
a notorious forgery that was written in France in the 1890s by an unknown author in the service of the Russian police, which sought to justify the tsarist regime's anti-Semetic policies
Preconditions for unification movements of both germany and italy
Napoleon II and nationalism, the Crimean War, and failed revolutions of 1848 and Realpolitik
The forces against unification of Italy
historical divisions and diverse influences, North/South economic/social differences, competing political structures, opposition of the pope and catholic church, and no mass support for Italian nationalism
Men significant to the unification process in Italy
Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi
The forces opposing the unification of Germany
The German Question, Foreign opposition, and diversity
Factors of the process of unification in Germany
Prussian strength, Bismark, War and unity
Overall impact of the unification of Germany and Italy
new nationalism, militarism, and balance of power

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