# Skullet Ratman

## Terms

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What tradition is communication research based on?
A. Ancient Greek rhetoric B. Sociology C. Social science, including work by Wilbur Schramm and Harold Laswell
The research process begins with...
defining problems and goals
problem statements include...
goals
In the Kadlec Medical Center problem statement example, what was the goal?
To use results of the study for promotion and advertising to increase bed use
What is variance?
How much variability there is in a variable
Which of the following is a descriptive research question?
What is the image of my company?
Which of the following is a ratio level of measurement?
Number of technologies owned
Once you have operationalized your variables you can create tables.
This is true, but you just wonâ€™t know what numbers go into the tables
What is a dependent variable?
The effect
Which of the following is more precise?
0 to 100%
Why is it important to expose myths like â€œpeople only use 10% of their brainsâ€?
So legislators and consumers donâ€™t waste money on techniques that allegedly increase brain use
In the Camp Fire problem statement example, what was the goal?
To identify targets and guide emphasis of the promotional campaigns
What is a limitation of traditional ways of knowing?
They donâ€™t have a method to falsify their conclusions
In communication industry research, we care most about⬦
variables
What is the best way to test a hypothesis?
With an experiment
What is an independent variable?
A variable that causes another variable to change
Why is measurement important?
It determines what analyses you can do, such as whether or not you can compute averages
What is wrong with: Ask, â€œHow many hours of TV did you watch yesterday?â€ Put observations into categories: 0-1; 1-5; 5 or more.
not mutually exclusive
As the values of one variable increase while the values of another variable decrease, you have a
negative relation
As the values of one variable increase while the values of another variable stay the same, you have a
No relation
To show cause and effect you need to ⬦
Eliminate other causes
The Dow Jones Industrial Average was used as an example of⬦
Not all hypotheses are testable, random daily fluctuations defy explanation
The Post-test Control Group experiment was used for...
The newspaper layout experiment
Quasi-experiment is ⬦
Not a true experiment
Don Dillmanâ€™s principles for doing electronic surveys include
Donâ€™t expect respondents to remember instructions listed at the beginning
Whatâ€™s wrong with the following variable: Ask people â€œWhat do you expect to spend on foodâ€ and categorize their answers as \$0-\$20; \$21-\$30; \$31-\$40; over \$40.
No time parameter
The Luigiâ€™s Restaurant customer survey card shown in class is an example ofâ€¦
Qualitative research
The post test only control group experiment⬦
Has at least one stimulus group and one control, and uses only an observation after the stimulus
In the hypothesis, â€œWhat percent of Queens county residents have cable modems?â€ what is the DV?
there is no DV
Using online polls is ⬦
Is not representative
â€œMales, 18-35 years old, will spend more money on music downloads in the next 30 days than females.â€ is an example ofâ€¦
a hypothesis
When you define your problem you should⬦
write it down
Joey mailed a questionnaire to a random sample of 300 WSU students in January 2005. What is the design?
Cross-sectional survey
If Joey said, â€œThere is always a best operationalization.â€ he would beâ€¦
wrong
Why is there â€œreplicationâ€?
Because science is not 100% sure, so studies are replicated to see if there are similar results
Science owes the development of the concept â€œzeroâ€ to...
parts of the world outside Western Europe
The bicycle example (to turn a bicycle to the left you should try to turn the handlebars to the right) demonstrated ⬦
The need to test out what is common sense or common knowledge
Humans use how much of their brains?
Over 50%
The story of the American Enterprise Institute paying scientists for rebutting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was to illustrate...
bad use of science, you shouldnâ€™t pick only science reports that support your biases
In the RQ, â€œHow many CDâ€™s are purchased in a month by males, 12-18 years old?â€ what is the DV?
There is no DV
Immediately after you write your problem statement you should⬦
Try to find existing information about your problem from archives or other sources
There is no best operationalization.
Which design is best for testing cause and effect?
Experiment
Immediately after you operationalize you can⬦
Set up your tables, but without numbers in them
Conducting a pre-test survey, then putting your campaign into the field, then conducting a post-test survey is an example of⬦
a quasi-experiment
What made the REI mail-questionnaire cover letter good?
There was an incentive (entry into a contest to win a \$100 certificate)
Convenience studies⬦
are not representative
The Solomon Four Group⬦
Has a â€œpre-testâ€ observation for half the groups, but no â€œpre-testâ€ observation for the other half
Which are good ways to evaluate the success of advertising on web pages?
Panel surveys done by companies like Media Matrix
Whatâ€™s the best way to know if your questionnaire is good?
pre-test it
One-shot surveys are usually less complicated and less expensive than experiments. They usually cost about⬦
over 5000 dollars
Which of the following is a â€œrule of thumbâ€ for constructing questionnaires?
Open-ended questions are used...
sparingly in quantitative studies because they take up a lot of time
Why is knowing a lot about variables important?
If people didnâ€™t change there would be no need for research, campaigns, etc.
Multiple response questionnaire items are good for...
Scales, like number of political activities participated in
Which of the following are â€œrules of thumbâ€ for questionnaires?
Collecting data via telephone is...
A data gathering technique
For information about users of yahoo.com, which is best?
A survey of people with internet access
Making sure that people give similar answers this morning as tonight (such as giving the same number for age) is...
Reliability
For an initial study, just describing a population, the best survey is⬦
Cross-sectional
Dillman has developed guidelines for doing...
Mail and electronic studies
As income goes up the likelihood of buying a BMW goes up is..
A positive relation
In the â€œResearch Processâ€ lecture joey showed that a basic cross-sectional survey can cost...
Over \$10,000
Why is defining the problem the first step in research?
If you donâ€™t know what you need and how you will use the information from a study you will waste time and money
The value of online sources such as the Pew Center is ..
You can look at their questionnaires for examples of how to ask questions
Which is an advantage of telephone over mail?
Can be completed in a shorter time
A target market or a target population is a⬦
constant
In an introduction to a telephone survey you should⬦
say that you're not asking for donations
What does the example of how to turn a bicycle show?
We may make correct decisions (to turn right you need to try to turn the handlebars left), but we may not be conscious it
Why do we care so much about variables?
Knowing how things change allows us to determine what causes change and our impact on that change
which of the following is a variable
Men, 18-35 years old vs. women, 36+
Why does the book say there will be a lot of cooperation between professionals and academics?
Professional organizations try to cooperate with academics, such as the NABâ€™s â€œGrants for Research in Broadcastingâ€
Problem statements⬦
Should be written
If people do not change, what is their variance?
Zero
Which step in the research process precedes the other?
Developing research questions precedes developing scales
What is measurement?
How you plan to code observations you make for a variable
What is the level of measurement of: Ask, â€œHow many hours of TV did you watch yesterday?â€ Put observations into categories: 0-1; 2-5; over 5.
Ordinal
What is the usefulness of experiments?
they test cause and effect
Use the following hypothesis for Q 11 and Q 12: As amount of attention to presidential campaign advertising increases the likelihood of voting in the presidential election also increases...What is the independent variable?
Amount of attention to political advertising
Use the following hypothesis for Q 11 and Q 12: As amount of attention to presidential campaign advertising increases the likelihood of voting in the presidential election also increases...What is the dependent variable?
liklihood of voting
What is wrong with: Ask, â€œHow often do you listen to radio?â€ Put observations into categories: never, rarely, frequently.
The categories are not precise
As the values of one variable increase while the values of another stay the same, you have a
no relation
Why do informal research?
To reduce our narrow views of the world
Which of the following can interfere with external validity?
Selection bias
Why use the Solomon Four-Group experiment?
To control for sensitizing subjects with a pre-test
Focus groups should be used for⬦
Generating ideas
As the values of one variable increase while the values of another variable randomly change, you have a
No relation
The Red Robin customer comment card is an example of⬦
Informal research
Which is an advantage of quantitative over qualitative designs?
Can be used to evaluate campaigns
Joey showed a mail questionnaire, â€œHousehold Research Survey, Consumer Product Survey of America,â€ with many consumer questions. What is true about the return envelope?
It would be better to use brightly colored commemorative stamps
â€œHow much money do males, 18-35 years old, expect to spend on music downloads in the next 30 days?â€ is an example ofâ€¦
A descriptive research question
The last step in the research process is⬦
Replicate
When you define your problem you should⬦
⬦write it down
Joey mailed a questionnaire to a random sample of 300 WSU students in January 2005; he mailed another questionnaire to the same 300 students in March 2005. What is the design?
Panel study
What is the communication research tradition (the communication fieldâ€™s lines of inquiry)?
Studying Cable TV, internet and other technology adoption
Content analysis includes⬦
Which of the following is a research design?
Trend study
If you have many â€œstatistically significantâ€ relations, it tells which relations are stronger
How do levels of measurement relate to analysis?
The level determines whether you can do percentages or averages
Joey e-mailed a questionnaire to all WSU College of Communication students in September 2008. What is the research design?
a census
If Joey said, â€œAll RQs can be answered scientifically.â€ he would be
wrong
â€œThere is always one best operationalizationâ€ isâ€¦ T or F?
False
The example used in class for testing an ad by first asking people to tell what they want in their shopping basket, then showing the ad, then asking people to tell what they want in their shopping basket again is an example of⬦
quasi-experiment
Are convenience studies representative?
nope
Focus groups ⬦
Are complex, requiring planning of agendas, etc.
The RQ: â€œMen are more likely to shop at outdoor stores than women are?â€ Relational or not?
is relational
Which is an advantage of mail over telephone?
Higher contact rate
Most applied research for communication industries uses which design?
survey
Why do you need to know the culture of the population you are studying?
Culture may bias a study, such as overrepresenting females who are more likely to answer the phone in the U.S.
What is the advantage of open-ended questions?
C. You can get the â€œflavorâ€ for a response to a closed-ended questionq
What is an advantage of electronic data collection?
time efficient
What is similar about on-line polls, convenience studies and placing questionnaire
All three can have problems with overrepresenting some people and underrepresenting others
You can sort by a variable, such as â€œnumber of employees supervisedâ€ and see if there are patterns in other variables
A panel is ⬦
a research design
Which product is more dangerous for children (based on the index number of deaths caused by the product per 100,000 homes having the product)?
pools
What are problems with electronic data collection?
Formatting problems
Multiple response items⬦
Are good for some indexes
Can you create categories for verbatims?
Yes, but have two or more coders, and do â€œintercoder reliabilityâ€
the best way to see if your web page is effective is⬦
Supplement online data (such as tracking with cookies) with a survey

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