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Anthro 102


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Primate Features
Orbits are enclosed within the skull
Forward facing eyes
Nails instead of Claws
A grasping thumb
Steroscopic vision
Two Suborders of Primates
Prosiminas and Anthropoids
First Suborder in the Order Primates
Three prosimians
Features of Prosimians
Arboreal, Small body size, vertical jumping and branch running as means of locomotion. Equal limb length, implying quadrapedlism. Good sense of sight and smell. Diet includes fruit, leaves, and insects
Playtrrhine characteristics
New World Monkeys. Divergent nose. Prehensile Tails. Third Premolar. Strictly Arboreal.
Infraorder of Anthropoids
Platyrrhines and Catarrhines
Catarrine Features
Has both power and precision grip. Wider diet of roots, seeds, lizards etc. Teath are more generalized and have thick enamel. Old World Monkeys have Ischial callosities. More sexual dimorphism.
Two Divisions Within Catarrines
Cercopitecoids (Monkeys)
Homonoids (Apes and Humans)
Three Homonoids
Hylobids, Pongids, and Homonids
Locomotion of Homonoids
No homonoids are quadrupeds. The types of movment are brachiation, knuckle walking, and walking.
Gibbons and Siamangs. Brachiators only
Orangutans, Chimps, and Gorillas. Orangutans tend to brachiate, chimps tend to knucke walk but can brachiate. Gorillas can only knuckle walk.
Includes modern humans and fossil human ancestors. Only means of locomotion is bipedal walking.
Characteristics of Aegyptopitecus
Arboreal quadruped. Modern dental formula, homoniod like molars (5y). Sexually dimorophic canines. Mainly ate fruit.
Proconsul characteristics
Slender mandible. Robust zygomatics. V shaped dental arcade. Possibly an arboreal quadruped.
Sivapiticus Characteristics
Thick molar enamel. Robust canines. Low cusped molars. Thick mandible. Possibly an arboreal quadruped.
Oreopithecus Characteristics
Large canines. High degree of sexual dimorphism. Longer forelimbs then hindlimbs. Could climb vertical tree trunks. Brachiated.
Gigantopiticus Charcteristics
Largest ever primate. Contempory with early Homo. Ate course vegitation. Lack of a diastema. Heavy mandible.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Date: 7-4 MYA
Range: North Central Africa
Orrorin tuginensis
Date: 5.7-6.1 MYA
Range: Woodland and Savannah
Ardipethecus ramidus
Date: 4.4 MYA
Range: Ethiopia
A. anamensis
Date: 4.9-4.2 MYA
Range: South Africa
Dentition: U shaped jaw. Diastema present. Thick enamel
Caranial Capacity:: Unknown
A. afarensis
Date: 3.9-3.7 MYA
Range: South Africa
Caranial Capacity:: 400-500 cc
Dentition: V shaped jaw. Small diastema
A. africanus
Date: 3-2.4 MYA
Range: All of Africa
Caranial Capacity: 400-500 cc
Dentition: Parabolic jaw. No diastema
A. bahrelghazalia
Date: 5.3-3 MYA
Range: Chad
Dentition: U shaped Jaw. No diastema
A. garhi
Date: 2.5 MYA
Caranial Capacity: 450 cc
A. aethiopicus
Date: 2.5 MYA
Range: Ethiopia
Caranial Capacity: 410 cc
A. boisei
Date: 2.6-1.2 MYA
Caranial Capacity: 410-530 cc
A. robustus
Date: 2-1 MYA
Caranial Capacity: 530 cc
Species in the Peranthropus group
A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, A. robustus. Robust australopithecines have a sagittal chrest, much larger jaw. Highly specialized diet. Much more chewing involved in the diet.
Robust vs. Gracile Diets
Robusts: Seeds and Nuts
Graciles: More generalized
Kenyanthropus playtops
Date: 3.5 MYA
Homo rudolphensis
Date: 2.4-1.6 MYA
Caranial Capacity: 752 cc
Features: Broad flat face. Large teath, and no brow ridges.
H. erectus
Date: 1.5-.4 MYA
Range: Africa and Eurasia
Caranial Capacity: 750-1250 cc
Skull football shaped. Asian erectuses have a sagittal keel. Broadest point on the skull is lower part of the skull.
Homo habilis
Date: 2-1.6 MYA
Range: Eastern Africa
Caranial Capacity: 500-650 cc
Dentition: Equal incisors to molars
Homo ergaster
Date: 1.9-1.5 MYA
Range: Africa
Features are much more primitive then Homo erectus.
Caranial Capacity: 750-1250 cc
archaic H. sapiens
Date: 400-100 KYA
Range: Africa, Asia, Europe
Face is more robust then modern H. sapiens. Occipital torus is present. Massive supraorbatl torus.
H. sapiens neandertalensis
Date: 130-35 KYA
Range: Classics are in W. Europe, Rregular Neandertals are found in the Middle East
Features are much larger then moderns. Larger caranial capcity, 1200-1750 cc
Homo sapiens sapiens
Date: 200 KYA-Present
Range: The globe
These populations are anatomically modern.
An example of Sahelantropus. Discovered in Chad by Michael Burnet and Patrick Vignaud
Mellenium Man
An example of Orrorin tugenesis. Discovered in the Tugen hills of Kenya by Brigette Senut and Martin Pickford. First example of Orrorin.
Taung Child
An example of A. africanus. Discovered
by Raymond Dart in South Africa. First australopithecine found.
Mrs. Ples
An example of A. africanus discovered in 1947 at Sterkfontein, South Africa, by Robert Broom. This is used as a comparison by which other potential A. africanus specimens are compared.
An example of A. afarensis. Discovered in 1974 in Hadar, Ethiopia by Donald Johanson and Tom Grey. This is the most complete skeleton of an australopithecine.
First Family
A collection of A. afarensis discovered by Donald Johanson in 1981, at Hadar, Ethiopia. Shows a collection of australopiticenes at different ages.
Laetoli Footprints
Discovered in 1978 by Paul Abell, they indicate that the australopithecines walked upright.
Black Skull
An example of A. aethiopicus discovered in 1985 by Allen Walker in West Turkana, Kenya.
An example of A. boisei discovered at the Olduvi gorge in 1959 by Mary Leaky.
KNM 1470
An example of Homo rudolphensis, found in Koobi Fora
Nariokotome Boy
An example of Homo ergaster, discovered by Richard Leaky in 1985. This is the most complete Homo ergaster skeleton, and it indicates that this specimen may have grown to over 6 feet tall.
Peking Man
An example of Homo erectus discovered in Zhoukodien, China. Found with it are many skeletons and stone tools.
Kabwe Man
An example of an archaic Homo sapeins in 1921. This has a complete skull with robust features
Old Man of LaChapelle-aux-Saints
A near complete skeleton of H. s. neandertalensis. This was one of the first Neandertals found and thus its features were assumed to be representative of the entire species. It old, suffered from arthritis, and shows evidence that Neandertals partook in social caring.
Olduvai Gorge
Located in northern Tanzania. Found were examples of A. boisei and habalines.
Located in South Africa, found here are examples of Homo habilis and A. robustus
Koobi Fora
Found here was the A. aethopicus and Homo habilis
A Homo erectus site in China which gave many fossils as well as stone tools.
Terra Amata
A Homo erectus site in France. Fond here are concentrations of erectus artifacts, as well as potential dwellings.
Ambrona and Torralba
Located in Spain, this Homo erectus site has many stone tools as well as the bones of ancient animals. This indicates that it was a butchering site. Some of the bones are charred, indicating that the meat may have been cooked.
Shanidar Cave
Located in Iraq, this cave has evidence of a Neanderthal burial with flowers. It also has many Neanderthal stone tools.
La Ferrasie Cave
Located in France, this Neanerthal site has a number of Musterian stone tools.
Oldowan Stone Tools
The most basic stone tools. Created by Homo habilis, these 2.4 MYA. These are basic pebble choppers. Other habaline sites have similar tools, implying shared learning.
Acheulean Stone Tools
Created by Homo erectus. These are more complicated tools. They are mainly the hand axe. Made of obsidain or flint. They require multiple strikes at different angles and pressures to make. Also requires pre planing.
Levallois Stone Tools
This type of stone tool requires a prepared core. After that flakes are taken off. These are found with archaic Homo sapiens.
Mousterian Stone Tools
Made by Neandertals, they are created by the disk and core technique. A series of flakes are removed from the core, and these flakes are then shaped into various tools. Cores can be used for manytimes for multiple tools.
Chatelperronian Stone Tools
Produced by Homo s. sapiens, they are primarily points and burins. These were tools which can be used to make other tools. Occasionally thse tools are found with Neanderthals.
Aurignation Stone Tools
45000 years old, they are the first blades. A blades are thinner then other stone tools, and are twice as long as they are wide. Also multiple materials, such as bone and antlers are being used as tools (ie hooks and needles).
Orrorin vs. Australopithicines
Supporters of Orrorin hold that A. anmensis was the only Australopithicne on the direct human family tree. Some of the features found in the older Orrorin are not found in the other Australopithicnes.
Pelvic differences in A. aferensis, H. s. neandertalensis, and H. s. sapeins
The pelvis in A. aferensis is flatter and less bowl shaped then moderns. Neanderthals had a more robust pelvis then moderns.
Killer Ape Theory
Australopithicens used osteodontokeratic tools in order to get meat for their diets.
Man the Hunter theory
Holds that males developed larger brains as they needed to hunt large game. Proved wrong for many reasons, mainly because evolutionary forces are only working on males.
Woman the Gatherer theory
Holds that gathering plants and raising children requires more brain power then scavenging. Proved wrong because evolutioary forces are only working on females.
Social Group Environment Theory
Holds that the brain developed certain behaviors, such as deception, in order to gain advantages on other members of the group. Other primates do not exhibit such behaviors.
What Happened to Neanderthals?
1. Could not compete with modern humans, and were driven to extinction
2. Interbred with modern humans to create modern Europeans.
Out of Africa Modell vs. Regional Continutiy
Out of Africa Model holds that H. s. sapiens originated in Africa and spread outwards. Regional Continuity holds that archaic Homo sapeins in various locations, through interbreeding, evolved into H. s. sapiens.
Motifs in Cave Art
Animals, Anthropmorphic designs, Abstract designs
Leaky's 6 Reasons for Cave Art
Art for Art's Sake: Humans like to create things, and they drew the world around them, doesn't explain some of the designs.

Sympathetic Magic: Meant to represent the animals they intended to hunt. By drawing them the artist spiritually creates them.

Chronicling Events: Things like phases of the moon or representations of the seasons.

Gender or Sociopolitical Organization: Various animals may represent various characteristics of people, bulls represent males, horses represent females. In caves around Altamara the people drew different things. They are all combined in Altamara. Thus, it could be some type of regional hub.

Life Rituals: Coming of age ceremonies, etc. could be represented by the works.

Shamanistic/Trance: The artist goes into a trance and after coming out of it paints what he saw.
Characteristics of Domestic Plants
They produce more then their wild counterparts. For grasses, the rachis is stronger. They are unable to disperse their seeds with out the help of humans. They are all ripe at about the same time.
Wheat Domestication Sequence
Wild Einkorn
Domesticated Einkorn
Replaced with a wild emmer wheat
Domestic Emmer
Bread Wheat
Mesolithic tools from Jericho
These tools are ment for working with plants. They include small bladelets intended to harvest crops.
Jerhico Occupation Period II
10000-9300 YA
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A. Had oval houses and ate domestic plants. Obsidian is imported for tools, no domestic animals. There are civic structures, like a 12' wall.
Jerhico Occupation Period III
Pre Pottery Neolithic B 9300-8000 YA
Square houses with a plaster floor. Some were decorated, impling a higher social class. These people ground out stone bowls. They ate domestic plants and used domestic animals. Skulls have been covered with plaster and painted over.
Jerhico Inhabitation I
12800-10500 YA
Early Natufian occupation. Lived in square houses, which were partly subterranean. The people still ate wild food.

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