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Bio 102 final


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appearance, the traits we observe
versions of genes called alleles (BB,Bb,Bb,bb)
change in sequence of DNA
(2N-1N) Child Birth
(2N-2N) cell divides into two separate daughter cells.
Chargaff's Rule
A=T, C=G
part of DNA that code for proteins
indicates and individuals chromosomes
Humans chromosomes
1N=23, 2N=46 chromosomes
Genetic Disorders
predictable set of consequences caused by mutations
Cystic Fibrosis
Excess mucus, increased infections, something wrong with 7th chromosome.
Huntingtons disease
damage to brain and spinal cord, dominant, chromosome 4
Hemophilia A
excess bruising, slow clotting, sex linked trait
group of organisms that interbreed.
hereditary information in common between individuals of the same species
Fruit Flys
used in genetic research because they are easy to handle, short generation time, large number of offspring, affordable, and have easily identifiable traits. 2N=8
phenotypes of two or more organisms. ex-chick-quail, goat sheep
organisms contain DNA for a different species
chemicals attaching to DNA and change the way genes function
Golden Rice
produces Beta-carotene in seed(Vitamin A) because much of the world is vitamin A dificiency.
Bt Corn
protien from bacillus repels european borer.
Genetically modified organisms
Dolly the sheep
first successful clone of adult mammal, 1997
Henrietta Lacks
hela cells, cancer is mutations leading to uncontrolled cell growth
What causes aging?
shortening of telomeres(ends of chromosomes)
Programmed cell death
allele frequencies change over time.
Natural Selection
an individual is more fit than other members of its species, capable of surviving and reproducing.
Sexual Selection
an individual is more fit than other members of its same sex(within a species)
Rufus Hummingbird
males chase other males, representation of health
Great frigate bird
males have pouch for offspring, females choice for mating
offers female blue gift and builds bower for them.
female attracts male
Side Blotches lizards
Females are yellow, males are orange blue or yellow. Orange male dominant.
Genetic Drift
Survival can be random, natural disasters can wipe out populations
Milk snake and coral snake
mutations in species make it difficult to tell apart.
Habitat Isolation
Deer mice
Temporal Isolation
different species of frogs mate during different months.
Behavioral Isolation
fireflies only mate with females of the same species
Mechanical Isolation
two species may reproduce hybrid ex-sage
Allopatric Speciation
Different locations, kaibab and abert squirrels.
Sympatric Speciation
two species develop in the same area.
Apple Maggot Flies
Sympatric and found in hawthorns
one species becomes another, horse shoe crab
Galapagos Finches
dry and wets years caused change in beak size frequency, adaptive radiation
Everbearing Strawberries
found in Utah, crossed plants to get everbearing
Drought Resistance Berries
found in florida and crossed with other berries.
kills cancer cells of leukemia, found in madagascar
Borneo Tree
Earths total Species
about 200 million
current extinction rate
10,000 species per year
primary cause of extinction
habitat loss
Black Footed Farret
about 600 remain, food (prairie dogs) is being killed off
Rufous Hare-Wallaby
killed by introduced predators
the science of explaining behaviors in evolutionary context.
Florida Panther
89 left, often hit by cars on freeway, we now have breeding programs
insecticide, mosquitos accumulates in plants travels to species who feed on plants and travels to birds, causing eggs and bones to break.
Human like species, terms bipedal and upright are used to describe human like.
Ardipithecus ramidus
oldest known hominin species. 5mya, walking upright they are 4 feet tall, canine teeth, small brain, muscular not chimp like.
slightly larger than ardepithecus, 4mya climate change in africa.
Homo Habilis
2.3 mya, stone tools found in africa, larger brain and under 5 foot, brow ridge
Homo Erecetus
1.5 mya, large axe handles, shelters, first to leave africa and travel through europe and asia.
Homo neanderthanlenis and homo sapiens
500 tya, better tools, social cooperation
Homo Floresiensis
as recent at 12tya, hight of 3 ft similar features of homo erectus, confusing scientist.
Relative fitness
individuals chance of having offspring compared to other individuals
Stickleback fish
males develop red bellies and start to fight, separate into territories, build algae huts in water, mating dance, if female approves she goes into inspect hut and lay eggs,
Innate behaviors
found in nature, reflex, modal action pattern, and drive.
Innate behavior, an automatic response to a specific stimulus
Modal Action pattern
innate behavior, a series of fixed reflex responses
Innate behavior, internal stimulus promote behavior.
Learned Behaviors
Nurture, imprinting, habituation, associated learning, latent learning, and insight.
learned behavior, learning during sensitive period of time.
learned behavior, learning to ignore specific stimulus
Associated learning
learned behavior, relating one stimulus to another
Latent learning
learned behavior, learning while focused on other activities
Learned behavior, using prior knowledge in a new situation
Factors impacting fitness
limited resources, territory, mates, food, water
Garter snake
example of simple sexual selection
dance fly
complex, wraps a food gift in silk to offer to females
optimizes food resource, produces carmel like form of feces that is eaten by settlers
Continual threats
disease, predators
Behavior can minimize disease
birds tend to make nest with fresh wild carrot leaves because it holds its own pesticides and reduces mites
Meadow Vole
many mates, promiscuous
Prairie Vole
monogamous, has an active vasopressin receptor gene
Inclusive Fitness
fitness includes reproductive success of relatives (similar alleles)
Reciprocal Altruism
sacrificing for someone else
understanding the world
cognitive capacity
Spacial Intelligence
Musical Intelligence
not music, tone
Bodily Intelligence
kinesthetic, both awareness
Interpersonal intelligence
relate and understand other of your species. (social)
Koko the Gorilla
her behaviors rely on multiple forms of intelligence.
Rhesus monkey
intelligence linked to protein changes in the brain
has genes that turn on and off, releasing hormones often triggered by changing lights.
herbicide that alters gene expression, ex-increases enzyme which transform testosterone into estrogen in male frogs
may slow fetal growth, varied results may be genetic
Breast Cancer alleles, myriad corporation owns patent to BRCA genes and tests
A blood type corresponds to
small pox
carried by cats in its intestines
is a parasite that is a type of protist
Humans w/ high levels of nitric oxide
defense against malaria
bacterial disease that demonstrates resistance to antibiotics
parasites which are simple single celled organisms that can cause disease when the produce toxins that damage the human host
Sickle Cell anemia alleles offer protection from areas with what disease?
Weaver bird nest
grass nest with long and down turned neck
Aggression and fear
related too concentrations of protein hormones and receptors in structures of the brain that make these behaviors more likely
Pill Bug
invertebrate with shell like exoskeleton and needs damp enviornment
random movement that is not headed toward or away from a stimulus. EX woodlouse becoming more active when its warmer outside.
Jane Goodall had extensively researched
Social Entholoist
study of animals social behaviors
study of animal behaviors
Monday night football advantage
West coast

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