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Chapter 20 Test


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a system in which society as a whole own and controls property and the means of production
nations that were held under Soviet domination before the Cold War
satellite nations
forced removal of leaders of satellite nations who were deemed disloyal
preventing the further spread of communism
a safety zone; created by Soviet Unoon to protect themselves from Western Europe
an agreement by which "an armed attack against one or more of them in North America shall be considered an attack against them all"; NATO policy
collective security
area that could be protected
defense perimeter
part of the Taft-Hartley Act that attempted to stop unions from limiting workers' output in order to create more jobs
individual attempting to overthrow the government
hostility and conflict between countries w/o actual warfare
Cold War
What was the "iron curtain"?
"Iron Curtain" was used to describe the division in Europe about communism. The term "iron curtain" came from this Churchill quote: "...and iron curtain has descended across the continent." After losing 15-20 million people in World War II, The Soviets wanted security and used influence among neighbors to get it. They created "satellite states" which were countries whose governments were influenced or controlled by the Soviet Russia. It grew to include Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, and East Germany
What was the Truman Doctrine?
The Truman Doctrine, instituted by Truman himself, preached a policy of containment. He did not want communism to spread. Truman said "seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want." Truman was afraid that communism would spread to Greece and Turkey. Congress approved of sending money and aid to both countries.
What was the Marshall Plan?
There was fear that communists would exploit chaos in Europe, and begin to infiltrate governments; fear was especially great in France and Italy. Secretary of State George C. Marshall wanted to greatly increase aid to Europe. By 1951, over $12 billion in aid was given to European countries. This caused a greated rift between the Soviet Union and the U.S.
What was the Berlin airlift?
At the end of World War II, Germany was divided into 4 sections, controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Berlin was divided in the same way. In 1949, the U.S., British, and French divisions melded into one. This was West Germany. The Soviets were angered as they saw this happening and closed off access to West Berlin. Between June 1948-May 1949, thousands of rations were sent to Berlin each day.
What was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization? (NATO)
On April 4th, 1949, many European and North American countries signed a pact. The pact stated that "an armed attack against one or more...shall be considered an attack against them all". People in the West needed a tighter sense of security. This also gave America a greater sphere of influence.

(collective security)
Who was Mao Zedong?
The Chinese Communist leader
Who was Chiang Kai-Shek?
The Chinese Nationalist leader
Who was Joseph McCarthy?
A wisconsin senator who accused many people, especially the Democratic party, of being communist and other things
Who was Douglas MacArthur?
He was a general who wanted to bomb China, but Truman would not. So, MacArthur wrote a letter to Truman criticizing this, and he was fired. This was very controversial.
What was the original border between North Korea and South Korea?
38th Parallel
List 3 reasons why Korea was important to the United States:
1)If the communists attacked Korea, couldnt they attack anywhere?
2) It was seen by some as the gateway to China and the rest of Asia
3) If the U.S. got involved in the conflict, Korea might allow the U.S. to put bases in Korea
What President ordered U.S. troops to go to Korea in 1950?
President Harry S Truman
Forces from what country helped push U.N. forces out of North Korea after they had already pushed close to the Yalu River?
What views did General MacArthur hold regarding the escalation of the Korean War, and why was he fired?
MacArthur wanted to blockade China and bomb military and industrial targets across the Yalu River. Truman did not agree with this, so MacArthur wrote a letter making unreasonable comment about the president. Truman then fired him.
Which president worked to the end of the Korean War?
Dwight D. Eishenhower
Decribe the border that was created at the end of the Korean War
DMZ (demilitarized zone)
area 2 1/2 miles wide when the fighting stopped
still exists to this day
List 4 Facrs about the Korean War
1) About 54,000 American lives were lost
2) Over 20 billion American dollars spent
3) Americans supplised 90% of the air support, 80% of the naval support, and 50% of the ground troops= UN effort?
4) There were no victors = no cheering crowds, no ticker tape parades
Describe the Taft-Hartley Act
The Taft-Hartley Act was an act dealing w/unions and their powers. Passed over Truman's veto, the Taft-Hartley Act was intended to outlaw practices like closed shop, jurisdictional strikes, and featherbedding. The Taft-Hartley Act was very controversial-supported by some, hated by others.
Describe the Election on 1948
The election of 1948 was very divided, especially the democrats. Some Southern Democrats broke away from supporting Truman, and formed the Dixiecrat party, which nominated Strom Thurmond. The Decomcrats nominated Eisenhower but he rejected, so then the nominated Truman. The Republicans nominated Thomas Dewey. Turman was far behind in public opinion polls, but he campaigned hard, making 350 speeches. Dewey hardly campaigned. Therefore, Truman won by a whole 2 million votes.
How did Truman intend to extend FDR's NEw Deal? What was Truman's policy nicknamed?
The Fair Deal. He wanted slum clearance, federal subsidies for public schools, medical insurance w/government backing, aid to farmers, and higher minimum wage. Most of his proposals were blocked by Congress.
List 5 ways in which the lives of African Americans changed after WWII
1. Many made the transition from farming to manufacturing
2. Many moved from rural areas to cities, like Detroit and Chicago
3. The number of African Americans in white collar, skilled, and supervisory work nearly tripled
4. Average African American income doubled
5. The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) grew ad worked with civil rights
Where was FDR born?
Hyde Park, NY
Where did FDR go to college?
Harvard, only average grades
Who did FDR marry?
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, sixth cousin once removed
What disease did FDR get in 1921
Stricken w/polio, affected his legs
Pre president years of FDR
Senate, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Vice Presidential Candidate under James Cox (lost to Coolidge), Governor of New York
What did FDR try to do to boost economy?
Pump priming
HOw many terms did FDR serve?
First President to serve a third term
Who did FDR appoint as his vice prez for his 4th term
harry s truman
Where did FDR die?
warm springs, GA
Where was truman born?
Lamar, MO
What did Truman have to wear as a child?
Thick glasses
Is S an abbreviation in Harry __ Truman?
No, his middle name is S
it is not an abbreviation
Who did Truman marry?
childhood sweetheart Bess Wallace
Truman was a farmer until he was called to fight in WWI, and he rose to the rank of colonel
Then, after the war, he became interested in politics
What did Truman do during WWII?
Ordered to atomic bombs to be dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
What was Trumans foreign policy?
What party was Harry Truman

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