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Ap European: Reformation


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Northern Humanism
Northern Humanism was more connected than the western renaissance humanism.
Thomas More
Thomas More was known as Saint Thomas More. He was an English lawyer, writer and politician. He was a leading humanist scholar and occupied many public officials. Thomas More wrote Utopia.
War of the Roses
Wars of the Roses, series of civil wars in England fought by the rival houses of Lancaster and York between 1455 and 1485. The struggle was so named because the badge of the house of Lancaster was a red rose and that of the house of York a white rose. Lancaster won.
Lancaster/ Tudor
The lancaster house consisted of the Tudor Dynasty.
Henry VIII
He was the King of England and lord of Ireland. He was the second king in the Tudor Dynasty, he succeeded his father, Henry VII. King Henry VIII was married six times.
Catherine of Aragon
Catherine of Aragon was the first wife of Henry VIII, their enullment was significant because Henry VIII had to beg the church to get it.
Act of suppremacy
The Act of Supremacy was in 1534, this made the king the head os the church in England. Which lead to debate in the house of commons.
Defender of Faith
Henry VIII of England was called the defender of the faith because he wrote Assertio Septem Sacramentorum which defended nature of marriage and supremacy of the pope. It also showed his feelings about Martin Luthers 95 thesis.
The protestant reformation was a movement that came up in the 16th century. The main spark was Martin Luther's 95 thesis the reformation ended in the establishment of new institution and Lutheranism, reformed churches and anabaptists. The reformation also led to the counter-reformation within the roman Catholic Church. The division of catholics and Protestants grew in European empires into modern nation-state systems.
Martin Luther
Martin Luther wrote and nailed the 95 thesis on the church door. Martin Luther began the spark to the reformation against the church. He was a miner's son who became a professor of theology.
95 thesis
The 95 thesis were written by Martin Luther which were hung on the church doors on the October 31, 1517. These were written arguing that indulgences were against the morals of the bible.
Martin Luther nailed his 95 thesis on the door of the wittenberg church, he was a professor at the Wittenberg University
Benefice System
benefices were offices for clerics, when they would hold more than one office. (Pluralism)
Hussites were followers of Jan Hus.
John Tetzel
John Tetzel was a dominican friar that sold indulgences. He was hird by Archbishop Albert and made the slogan "As soon as coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs" He drew a chart for prices corresponding to the sins.
Tetzel and Luther clashed.
The society of jesus was founded by Ignatius Loyola. He was a former Spanish solider, spread protestanism. He spent a year in seclusion, prayer, and personal mortification, his insights he wrote in Spiritual Exercises.
Ulrich Zwingli introduced the reformation in Switzerland. He was convinced that Christian life rested on the Scriptures, which were the pure word of God and the sole basis of religious truth. he disagreed with Luther on many theological issues, notably the nature of the Eucharist.
Peace of Augsburg
In 1555, Charles agreed to the Peace of Augsburg, which he accepted the status quo, offically recognized Lutheranism. Each prince was permitted to determine his region's religion.
north plus central Germany Lutheran.
South remained catholic.
John Calvin thought God selects certain people to do his work, Calvin believed that God had specifically called him to reform the church. He wrote The Institutes of the Christian religion this showed his belief in absolute sovereignty, the omnipotence of God, and the weakness of humanity.
God hhas already decided who would be saved and who would be damned.
Society of Jesus
Loyola gathered a group of six companions, the members were called jesuits. The Jesuits recruited primarily from the wealthy merchant and professional classes.
Black Legend
Anti-Spanish during the Spanish inquisition.
A small group of moderates of both fath, they believed that only the restoration of a strong monarchy could reverse the trend toward collaspe.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots in Paris, on St. Bartholomew's Day, August 24, 1572. In order to increase the royal power, the queen mother, Catherine de Médicis.

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