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Sociology Exam #3 2


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majority/dominant group
the group with the most POWER in a society; NOT necessarily the group the greatest numbers
minority/subordinate group
group or groups with less power (not as much as the majority) in a society
Views of America and immigration
1. Anglo-conformity:get rid of
heritage, become like majority
2. Melting Pot:different cultures come
together to form new America
3. Cultural Pluralism: (today) every
ethnic group keeps traditions/
cultures and become members
of sub-cultures
Different ways societies have dealt with minorities over time
1. genocide
2. expulsion
3. segregation
4. assimilation
5. pluralism
6. amalgamation
mass murder
-the physical extermination of an
entire group of people, just
because they are in that group
ex. Holocaust [10 mill. people killed],
Bosnia (Serbs) ["ethnic cleansing
from the Muslims"], Rwanda,<
those in power brutally and forcably throw out group; TOTAL REMOVAL, either external, or internal (moved to unfavorable part of the country)
those in power decide which parts of
society minorities can be a part of
ex. gender or racial
process by which a group
VOLUNTARILY gives up its
heritage to become part of the
majority culture
-positive intergroup relation-
where the groups in a society are encouraged to retain their heritage [ethnic identity] in a subculture
a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes
defines individuals who are believed to share common characteristics that differentiate them from other collectives in a society
5 main characteristics of ethnic groups
1. unique cultural traits (language,
clothing, holidays, religious
2. a sense of community
3. a feeling of ethnocentrism
4. ascribed membership from birth
5 territorialty (the tendency to occupy
a distinct geographic area)
a negative attitude based on faulty
generalizations about members of
selected racial and ethnic groups
rooted in ethnocentrism and stereotypes
the tendency to regard one's own culture
and group as the standard---and
thus superior
overgeneralizations about the
appearance, behavior, or other
characteristics of members of
particular categories
Gk:"stereos"-solid, fixed mental
a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices
that is used to justify the superior
treatment of one racial or ethnic
group and the inferior treatment of
another racial or ethnic group
the factors of the underlying reasoning behind racism
gender, age, class, and geography
kinds of racism
1. overt- blatent; public statements
2. subtle-more difficult to prove
Racism tends to _______ in times of economic uncertainty and high rates of immigration
frustration-aggression hypothesis
people who are frustrated in their
efforts to achieve a highly desired
goal will respond with a pattern of
aggression toward others
object of agression-scapegoat
a person or group that is incapable of
offering resistence to the hostility or
aggression of others
often used as substitutes for the actual
source of the frustration
According to some symbolic interactionists, predjudice results from _________ ___________
social learning

learned from observing and imitating significant others such as parents and peers
authoritarian personality
characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking
social distance
the extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own
involves actions or practices of dominant-group members (or their representitives) that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group
when members of one group marry those of other social or ethnic groups
the spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender, and/or religion
De jure segregation
laws that systematically enforced the physical and social separation of Af. Amer. in all areas of public life
De facto segregation
racial segregation and inequality enforced by custom
Caste Perspective
"racial and ethnic inequality is a permanent feature of U.S. society because of structural elements, such as the law"
Class Perspective
emphasize the role of the capitalist class in racial exploitation
Internal Colonialism
occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group
Split-Labor-Market Theory
refers to the division of the economy into two areas of employment, a primary sector or upper tier, composed of higher-paid (usually dominant group) workers in more-secure jobs, and a secondary sector or lower tier, composed of lower-paid (often subordinate-group) workers in jobs with little security and hazardous working conditions
gendered racism
the interactive effect of racism and sexism on the exploitation of women of color
theory of racial formation
actions of the government substantially define racial and ethnic relations in the U.S.
Critical race theory
the belief that racism is such an ingrained feature of U.S. society that it appears to be ordinary and natural to many people
Conflict Theories-on race and ethnic relations
1. Caste Perspective
2. Class Perspective
3. Internal colonialism
4. Split labor market
5. Gendered racism
6. Racial formation
7. Social rearticulation
Social rearticulation
when the government's definition of racial realities is periodically challenged by social protest movements of various racial and ethnic groups
Functionalist Theories-of race and ethnic relations
1. Assimilation
a. cultural
b. biological
c. structural
d. psychological
2. Ethnic pluralism
a. equalitarian pluralism
b. inequalitarian pluralism
white Anglo-Saxon Protestant
the right to choose one's own way of life
examples of racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. today
-Native Americans
-WASPs (northern and western Europe)
-African Americans/Blacks
-White Ethnic Americans (eastern and
southern European)
-Asian Americans
=Filipino (Philippine Islands)
=Indochinese (Vietnam, Cambodia,
Thailand, and Laos)
-Latinos/as [Hispanic Americans]
=Mexican or Chicanos/as
=Puerto Ricans
-Middle Eastern American
[Afghanistan, Libya, Arabia,
Cyprus, Asiatic Turkey...]

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