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Ethics Semester 2 Final Review


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protagoras: all truth is subjective, everything is opinion: people cannot be right or wrong because its what they think
protagoras: you cant know anything
Meaning subjectivism
Diogenes: there is OT but not about the meaning of life (philosophy, morality, religion)
Diogenes: there is OT about what can be proven but NO OT about what you cant prove
Gorgias: the OT about the meaning of life is that life is meaningless "lifes a bitch and then you die"
Democritus: Matter is objectively true and matter is all that matters
Thrasymachus: OT exists but not about right/wrong or moral truth
the study of religion in general and the grounds of theistic belief; the study of revealed religion and the grounds of Christian belief; the study of the true church of christ andt he frounds of catholic belief
an association of individuals for the dissemination of a religion or doctrine
Pluralistic post-modern culture
a multi-cultural, connected society that is interdependent
Interiorization of the law
really taking in the law and understanding truly; was called for by the prophets
sermon on the mount
proclaims the new law; the Beatitudes comprise prologue to the Sermon; they are intended to throw light on the will of God
The Great Commandment
origin of the corporal works of mercy; love God and thy neighbor; love that surrenders the individual ego and imitates God's love for everyone; prayer, religious acts, and forgiveness are important
Mosaic Law
the Ten Commandments is the core of the Mosaic Law; they summarize the fundamental demands of God regarding his covenant
sin of omission
sinning by not doing something
sin of Commission
sin by acting on something
being of something in something else; God incarnate, word made flesh
The Catholic Workers Movement
started by Dorthy Day, helped the homeless, their newsletter is The Catholic Worker
Theological Virtues
human virtues are rooted in theological virtues; faith, hope, and charity
Theological virtue faith
the theological virtue by which we believe in God and believe that all he has said and revealed to us to be true
Theological virtue hope
the theological virtue by which we desire the kingdom of heaven and eternal life as our happiness
the theological virtue by which we love God above all things, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God
Freedom of Self-determination
basic values, the choices about the most significant relationships in your life; nature vs. nurture; the freedom to make something of oneself
Fundamental stance
the basic direction of our lives, the sort of person we have chosen to be; the fundamental direction we have chosen for our lives; the task of adolescence; for the christian, one can measure onself by the Great Commandment
Fundamental Option
significant moments of choice in our lives which establish or affirm our fundamental stance; choosing faith, living in a covenant with God
Head Knowledge
(conceptual) mastery of facts, understanding ideas and concepts)
Heart Knowledge
(evaluative) more personal and more apt to move us
comprised of bishops, cardinals and the pope
ruman curia
various branches of the administration that conduct the daily functioning of the church; assist the pontiff in exercises of his supreme pastoral function for the good and service of the church
infallible teaching
teaching that must have no possibility for error, either now or in the future; few teachings are declared infallible by the Pope
sense of the faithful
Newman came up with this..."there is in the body of the faithful (the laity) an instinct for the truth, that this sense of the faithful must never be ignored or taken for grated by the church's official teachers, that authentic church teaching therefore come about through a kind of conspiracy or coorperative enterprise on the part of both laity and hierarchy, and finally there certain lapses can occur when one side or the other of this living body temporarily ceases to function
overarching principles
how one answers the question
what is the first moral question for the Christian?
What does it mean to me to be created in the image and likeness of God
humans are created in Gods image and likeness, we have domain over other creatures and free will
concerned with the law and the covenant
prophets-interiorization of the law
the prophets were there to guide us back to God and to remind us of our covenant with God and to help us stay in tune with the Law and covenant with God
proverbs and sayings concerned with the individual and applying the laws
5 messages of Jesus' teaching
Kingdom of God, call to conversion and repentance, jesus as a new moses, Great Commandment of Love, demands of discipleship
kingdom of God
a share in divine life; intervention of God
call to conversion and repentance
opens door of Kingdom of God, all we have to do is sincerely ask for forgiveness
Jesus as a new moses
sermon on the mount-law at mount sinai; Jesus calls us back to God's law just like Moses did
Great Commandment of Love
love god and thy neighbor, love that surrenders the individual ego and imitates God's love for everyone; prayer, religious acts, and forgiveness are all important
demands of discipleship
take up your cross; leave homes; strive through narrow gate; obedience to God more important that parts of body
5 foundations of the church in the New Testament
influences of the Holy Spirit; communion of life; dying/rising ethics; deeper understanding of Great Commandment
influence of the Holy Spirit
creates believer anew, humans inclined toward sin
communion of life
through baptism all are one in Jesus, primary concern was relationships with God and each other
dying/rising ethics
christians derive being and power from death and resurrection of Jesus, continue to share in Paschal mystery
deeper understanding of Great Commandment
love is better way, fulfills whole law, sovereign among theological virtues, prove love through ten commandmens
religious conversion
when one has a deep desire and thirst for ultimate meaning and love for true happiness
intellectual conversion
an intellectual conversion transpires when a change in perception happens due to new experiences and insights
affective conversion
transforming of feelings and emotions, when turning away from self-centered individualism, towards love and self-giving of others
moral conversion
shifting from the level of thought to the point of action
just war criteria
just cause, competent authority, comparative justice, right intention, probablity of success, proportionality, last resort, discrimination
just cause
war is only to confront a real and certain danger
competent authority
war must be declared by those with responsibility
right intention
war can only be waged for the reason set forth above as a just cause
probability of success
war should only be attempted if it is likely to succeed in achieving justice
the good to be gained from war outways the bad
last resort
last resort for resolving the conflict
a criteria used after war begins, violence directed only at military targets
no violence ever
conscientious objector
these are persons who, by reasons of religious, ethical, or moral belief can not take part in war (recognized by government)
noncombatants objector
these are persons because of thier religious views do not take part in war but do other military services (cook, med) (recognized by government)
objectors to paying for war
will not pay taxes to government for military spending
selective objectors
people who will not support a war unless it meets all the just war criteria
nuclear pacifists
people who would be against nuclear war, wont participate in a war if it has the potential to be nuclear
non-cooperators with the draft
self explanatory
what is conscience
moral conscience enjoins a person at the appropriate moment to do good and to avoid evil, it also judges choices as either good or bad, when you listen to your conscience you can hear God
what are the 3 dimensions of conscience
the perception of the principles of morality; their application in the given circumstances; judgement about concrete acts yet to be performed or already performed
what does the catholic church teach about following ones conscience
you should always follow your well formed and well educated conscience
what is meant by healthy guilt
when guilt is warrented or deserved it is a sign of mental and moral health
warrented guilt occurs when
1. we know an act is wrong
2. we do it anyways
a habitual and firm disposition to do good
what are the cardinal virtues
prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance
venial sin
weakens the roots of our fundamental commitment to God and to being a loving person
mortal sin
radically disrupts the persons relationship with GOd and turns the person away from openess to life and love
social sin
how social structures can shape our existance for the worse describes the consequences of individual choices which form structures wherein people suffer various forms of oppressions and exploitations. often we are not aware of how social structures we are apart of are sinful, social sin only stops when people become aware and stop taking part
natural law
reasons reflection on human experience discrovering moral value
fundamental norm
do good avoid evil
good=anythin that actualizes human potention
evil=whatever frustrates or prohibits human potention
specific norms
1.the tendency to persever in being: survival of the fittest
2.the tendency towards procreation and education of offspring
3. the tendency toward truth and cooperating with one another in social settings
Kohlberg level one
stage 1=avoid punishment
stage 2=reward
Kohlberg level two
stage 3=others opinions
stage 4=law and order
Kohlberg level three
stage 5=social contract
stage 6=self-actualization
levels of church teaching, infallibility
dogma=assent of faith
definitive doctrine=embrace and hold as true
authoritative doctrine=religious docility of will and intellect
prudential admonitions and church discipline=conscientious obedience
noninfallible teaching
contain truth and important values that the magisterium wants to uphold, most moral teachings are noninfallible
guidelines for dissent:
1.affirm the teaching authority of the Church concerned for the means to the end
3.contribute toward reformulating the teaching
4.count the cost
7 Themes of Catholic Social Teaching
life and dignity of the human person; call to family, community, and participation; rights and responsibilities of the human person; option for the poor; the dignity of work and the rights of workers; solidarity; care for God's creation
Life and dignity of the Human Person
everyone possesses a basic dignity that comes from God, not from any human quality or accomplishment, the test of every human institution or policy is whether it enhances or threatens human life and human dignity
call to family, community, and participation
family is the basic cell of society, it is where we live and act on our values, we have the right and responsibility to participate in and contribute to society
rights and responsibilities of the human person
flowing from our God givin dignity, everyone has basic rights and responsibilities; these include the right to freedom of conscience religion and liberty, to raise a family, to immigrate, to live from unfair discrimination; people have a fundamental right to life and those things that make life truly human: food, shelter, clothing, healthcare, education, security and employment
option for the poor
the moral test of a society is how its most vulnerable members are faring
the dignity of work and the rights of workers
work is more than earning a living, it is an expression of our dignity and a form of continuing participation in God's creating; people have the right to work, to decent wages, safe conditions and private property
we are one human family, whateve our national, racial, ethnic economic, and idealogical differences are; we are our brothers and sisters keeper
care of God's creation
called to be co-creators with God and to have dominion over the earth, we are calledto be good stewerds of what God has entrusted to us
Rerum Novarum
Pope Leo XII: promotion of human dignity through just distribution of wealth; workers have basic human rights accordin to the Natural Law; fair wages; the right to organize and own private property
remove the cause of these problems; social change
get both sides to understand where they're coming from and why
act of desperation thats been set up by society
help support womans choice to keep the baby, pro life
project rachel
services for women/families who have already had abortions

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