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Essentials of Logic


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A statement; what is typically asserted using a declarative sentence, and hence always either true or false-although its truth or falsity may be unknown.
Truth Values
The status of any statment as true, or false.
In an argument, the propositions upon which inference is based; the propositions that are claimed to provide grounds or reasons for the conclussion.
Is a mental process by which one proposition is arrived at and affirmed on the basis of one or more other propositions assumed as the starting point of the process.
Any group of propositions of which one is claimed to follow from the others, which are regarded as providing support or grounds for the truth of that one.
In any argument, the proposition to which the other propositions in the argument are claimed to give support, or for which they are given as reasons. Claim, therefore.
One of two major types of argument traditionally distinguished, the other being induction. A deductive argument claims to provide conclusive grounds for its conclussion; if it does so, its valid, if it does not it is invalid.
One of two major types of argument traditionally distingushed, the other being deduction. An inductive argument claims that its premise gives only some degree of probability, but no certainty, to its conclussion.
An argument that is stated incompletely, the unstated part of it being taken for granted. An enthymeme mat be of the first, second, or third order depending upon whether the unstated proposition is the major premise, or the conclusion of the argument.
A deductive argument whose premises, if they were all true, would provide conclusive grounds for the truth of its conclusion, it is said to be valid.
Any deductive argument in which a conclusion is inferref from two premises.
Syllogistic Argument
Any argument that is either a standard-form categorical syllogism or can be reformulated as a standard-form categorical syllogism without any change of meaning.
A kind of ambiguity arising from the , akward, or mistaken way in which words are combined, leading to alternitive possible meanings of a statement. Also, the name of a fallacy when an argument incorporates an amphibolous statement that is true as used in one occurence, but false as used in another occurence of the statement in that argument.
Standard-form categorical propositions
The four categorical propositions, named A(universal affirmative), E(universal negative), I(particular affirmative), O(particular negative)
Re-writing the argument in clear language, suppling any missing or assumed information that is not explicitly stated, being careful to preserve the meaning of the original.Put into simple language.
Meaning or language. Does it fit together? What is being said.
The *interior or syntax, the way the words are put together. How is it being said? *Exterior who(speaker, author),when and where ( situation,date, time and place).
Motivation or purpose (why).
The greatest vice, mistake or hinderence of logic.
The greatest virture of logic.
5 objectives of Education
1) To think clearly. 2) Read carefully. 3) Write effectively 4) Speak persuasively. 5)Listen carefully
(Greek=logos)that which holds eveything together.The motor of reason. Word, meaning, intelligence, reason, mind or god.
3 sacred words of logic
-because(premise)-therefore(conclusion)-it follows(it makes sense that)
2 types of logic
Formal argument-structure and symbolic. Informal- language and meaning.
Visable and audible it is stated.
Invisiable, inauditable it is implied or unstated.
Analytical proposition
definition (dictionary) A is A.
External proposition
Objective (outward, sense and data). See, touch, hear and feel.
Internal Proposition
Subjective (inward, feelings)
Moral proposition
Behavior (evaluation of judgement, right, wrong,good or bad)
Aestheic Proposition
Behavior (beauty, enjoy or pleasure)
A mistake in reasoning, a type of argument that may seem to be correct, but proves upon ezamination not to be so. Fallacies may be formal or informal.
4 emotions that hinder
Fear, anger, guilt and shame.
Major premise
In a standard syllogism, the premise that contains the major term.
Major Term
The term that occurs as the predicate term of the conclusion in a standard-form syllogism.
Minor premise
In a standard-form syllogism, the premise that contains the minor term.
Minor term
The term that occurs as the subject term of the conclusion in a standard-form syllogism.
Middle term
In a standard-form syllogism(which must contain exactly three terms) the term that appears in both premises, but does not appear in the conclusion.
Intimitade (threaten, maniuplate, control, shaming or condemnation).
Invitation ( encourage, inspire, lead or follow).
The study of values
Ideas about right and wrong behaviors.
Ideas about the beautiful and the ugly- what is significantly pleasing and is not pleasing.
The study of reality, idealism,materialism and dualism.
the study of knowledge or truth.
3 major categories
Axiology,Metaphysics and Epistemology.
Stat of being verbs
am, is ,are, was, were, be, being, been, do, does, did, have, has, had, can, could,shall, should,will,would,may,might,must.
To identify a proposition look for...1) Verbs
1) action a)external-objective. b)internal-actions-subjective. 2) stae of being-auxiliary-helping.
To identify a proposition look gor...2) Verbals
1)Participle-"ing""ed"-words used as a adjective. 2) Gerunds-"ing" words as a noun. 3)Infinitives-"to" followed by a verb.
The meaning of a word.
Rhetorical question
Is a statement made in the form of a question that does not need a answer due to the fact that it is indeed a statement and not a question.
Basic formula of a simple argument
Argument-premises are more obvious. Explaination-conclusion is more obvious.
4 kinds of sentences-Grammatical
1)Declarative(emotively neutral)2)Imperative. 3)Interrogative. 4)Exclamatory.
4 kinds of sentences-Logical
1)Assertion(emotively neutral) 2)Command 3)Question 4)Exclaims-shows emotion.

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