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HES 30


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types of research
1. historical (analytical)
2. Philosophical (analytical
3. Research synthesis (Meta-Analysis) (analytical)
4. Descriptive Research (epidimeology)
5. Experimental (& Quasi-Experimental) Research
6. Qualitative
inductive reasoning vs. deductive reasoning vs. descriptive reasoning
inductive: from a few data develop a general theory
deductive: from a general theory develop a specific hypothesis
descriptive: describe events, circumstances, experiences, insight
no IV or DV, non experimental

Purpose: to reconstruct the past systematically and objectively

-depends on data observed by others
Purpose: to examine reality ("meaning" of thins) by using reflective procedures
-uses inductive, deductive, and descriptive reasoning
-look at "how's" and "why's" vs. what's
-adresses the meanings and values of phenomenon
research synthesis
Purpose" to quantify (measure objective) the results of studies in the existing peer-reviewed literature
-reduces large quantities of studies to basic principles
purpose: to describe characteristics and facts about a specific population
-descries situation or events (case study, developemental, epidemiological, study)
-accumulates a descriptive data base
-primarily relies on survey techniques and existing records
*most popular
Purpose: to investigate cause and effect relationships
*exercise physiology
-rigorous control
Purpose: to understand the meaning of an experience to the participants in a specific setting
-inductive reasoning
-small sample sizes
-natural, real world settings
-reseacher is the primary data collection
-study design is flexible
-data is interpreted
*women studying chimps
what is research?
careful, systematic, and objective investigation conducted to obtain facts, draw conclusion, and establish principles regarding an identifiable problem
5 characteristics of good research
1. systematic: identify problem, propose hypothesis & label variables, design study, collect data, evaluate data, draw conclusions
2. Logical: methods/procedures results lead to conclusions, did/could IV chance DV?
3. Empirical: Are decision/ conclusions based on collected data?
4. Reductive: process of reducing => developing general relationships
5. Replicable: can new research be built upon it?
Applied research
Reseach that has a direct value to practitioner but in which the reseacher has limited control over the setting.
Basic research
Research that may have limited direct application but in which the researcher has careful control over the conditions
Ecological validity
Controlled (basic) and real world (applied)
"Bridge the Gap" apply basic science to clinical setting
A possible shortcoming or influence that either cannot be controlled or is the result of delimitation imposed by the investigator.
A limitation imposed by the reasearcher in the scope of the study, a choise the researcher makes to define a workable research problem
scientific method (4)
1. Define the problem
2. Formulate the hypothesis
3. Gather data
4. Analyze and interpret results
Unscientific methods of problem solving
1. tenacity- too driven, out to prove something, stuck to a hypothesis
2. Intuition: "common sense" => the world is flat, 4 minute mile
3. Authority, physicians
4. Rationalistic Method: Come up with excuses why results occur
5. Empirical method: relying too much on your own personal experience or data.
Anatomy of a research article (7)
1. Abstract
2. Review of literature
3. Methods/Subjects/Designs/Statistics
4. Results- the table format/figure format
5. Discussion
6. Conclusion
7. References
Impact factor
How journals are rated. Represents the average # of times each article is cited each year.
#1. Hournal in World: Science
#2. Nature
Characteristics of selecting a research problem
1. Controversy, Reviews, Unanswered?
2. Workability--possible?
3. Critical Mass--enough of a problem to warrant time and energy?
4. Interest: personal, professional
5. Theoretical value: adcance "science"
6. Practical value
different types of cariables (5)
1. control
2. extraneous
3. IV
4. DV
5. Categorical
4 main components in methods section
1. Participants
2. Instruments
3. Procedures
4. Design and analysis
3 basic methods of research
1. Maxicon: a way to control having any other explanation of the results except the hypothesis the researcher intends to variate
2. KISS: Keep it short and simple
3. Less is more
Plagarism- Take someone else's data
Fabrication and falsification- make up data, calling someone else's data your own
Nonpublication of data- eliminating bad data, "cooking data"
Unethical activities- inappropriate treatment of subjects, malfunctioning eqiptment, recording data incorrectly
Poor data storage and retention- maintain confidentiality
Misleading authoriship- deciding authorship=> accept responsibility, contribute directly to research
Sneaky publication practices- who you know, submitting to multiple journals
Ethics cntd. protecting human subjects
-Right to non participation
- Right to privacy
-Right to remain anonymous
-experimenter responsibiliry

-Informed consent: Written 5th to 8th grade level, approved by US Dept of health and human services, IRB. must include risks and benefits om the study, disclusure of appropriate alternative procedures, offer to answer questions, instruction that subject is free to withdraw
Institution Review Board/Consent
-asseses study to study to determine if it is ethical and appropriate
Components of methods section
subjects: categorical variables, description of subject
design-are there enough detail to replicate the study? Is the intervention appropriate for answering the research question?
instrumentation-Is the equip. desctibedf/pictured and the validity and reliability of the measurement reported?
procedures- is there evidence of parient protection? Are the procedure the subjects go through and the time required adequately described?
data analysis- Are the statistical methods appropriate for the type of study? Is an acceptable probability level set? Are references provided to understand less common analytical statistics.
rejects null hypothesis when it is true
fails to reject Ho when it is false
*important when using drugs
odds that a certain event will occur; describes confidence in a stistical finding
p<0.05 = 95% confident IV will chance DV 5% odds findings are due to chance?
alpha level
"level of significance"/ probability of chance occurrence set by the researcher prior to the study
parametric statistics
statistics based on normal distribution
description of "central" tendency

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