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-coined by cultural Historian Jakob Burkhardt
+Wrote book, The Civilivation of the Renaissance in Italy
=revival of classical learning and ideals
=beginning of modern world

Revival of Classical Learning and Ideals
-Vitruvian Man
-Leonardo da Vinci's
-illustrates synthesis of classical Humanism and Empiricism
+celebrates human form(naked) and proportionate
+used observation and measuring to create (empiricism)

Revival of Classical Learning and Ideals
-Creation of Adam
-Michelangleo Buonarroti
-illustrates synthesis of classical Humanism and Judeo-Christian thought
+God protrayed as human-life=controversial (hubris)
+Man created in God's image=good
+God a little higher, but almost equal

Revival of Classical Learning and Ideals
-School of Athens
-Raphel Sanzio
-acknowledges contributions of Greek Idealism and Empiricism
+pic of idealism (Plato) and pic of empirialism (Aristotle)
Birth of Modern World
-invention of printing by movable type
+developed by Johannes Gansfleich zur Laden zum Gutenberg
+invention not embraced by all (especially book trade guilds)
+new printing shops opened all over Europe and were mix of sweatshop, boarding houses, and research institute creating centers of intellectual and cultural exchange
+first 50 years, 20 million books produced
Results of printing by movable type
-literacy rate increased dramatically (1530, half of England was literate) although early books were religious in nature
-Books were published more cheaply, efficiently and accurately
-printing and widespread distribution of books created intellectual accountablility among scholars, allowed for accurate bookkeeping and financial records
-marks beginning of our modern concept of a "fact"
economic changes spurred by Black Death
-1347, merchant ship returning from Black Sea to Sicilian port of Messina brought plague to Europe
-plague killed within 24 hours of appearance of first black pustule. 20 years, half of pop. of Europe dead (survived plague=starvation)
-devastation worst in cities (vermin, overcrowding, and lack of sanatation systems)
Danse Macabre
-concept of visual arts
+dancing skeletons (death) carry people of varying social classes off to their deaths (death is equalizer)

Varation of Danse Macabre
-Four Horseman of the Apocalypse
+war, famine, pestilence, death
+mentioned in book 6 of the book of Revelations
+woodcut by Albrencht Durer
Lasting Effects of Black Death
-create shortage of labor that allowed serfs, formerly bound to land, to command almost any rate of services
-resulting labor market (competition for labor drives up wages), ended feudal (medieval) economic system and laid ground works for development of capitalism
-forced changes in European social structure that lead to development of middle class
-newly achieved status of laborers decreased power and authority of both religious and governmental institutions
Innovations in banking and finance
-Italy 1st area of Europe to recover from plague (good climate and fertile lands, effective sanitation systems)
-Italians acquired wealth, willing to invest it and created need for managing and regulating transactions
-Medici family created 1st international bank
+Lorenzo Medici ("IL Magnifico")
-Italy becomes 1st social, financial, and intellectual center of Renaissance
+international banking system makes safer and easier trade
+rates of currency exchange become standarized, stable and predictable
+new census of property helps to assess wealth and standarized property values
+use tariffs protect home produced goods
+financial stablity encourage experimentation with republican forms of government
+1st income taxes help finance better public services
Diminishing power of Church
-growth of literacy and proliferation of books decreased people's dependence on church for education and info
-economic success throughout Europe weakened Church's financial and political power (and influence)
-corruption and abuse within chruch led to theological and political changes of reformation
-secular leaders felt empowered to challenge church authority to further their own personal and political agenda's
-development during scientific revolution further eroded reliance on Church authority
-rediscovery of classical humanism, philosophy, and culture inspired Europeans to explore beyond limits of Church dogma, while maintaning their identity as Christians. Synthesis comes to be known as Christian Humanism
+sinful not to use gifts God gave you
+birth of personal God
Voyages and Discoveries: Age of Exploration
-gave Europeans nearly unlimited access to resources and new markets in which to sell goods. It marks beginning of impearlism (which lasted into 20th century)
+strong missionary movement and development of European attitude known as "paternalism" (Europeans better than savage=show others the way)
Voyages and Discoveries: Scientific Revolution
-saw great leaps in understanding of natural laws through discoveries made in astronomy using empirical approach that has come to be called the scientific method
-discoveries spurred technological innovations and further strengthened belief that humans are capable of understanding world without depending on authority
Innovations/Breakthroughs in Renaissance art
-linear perspectative: creates a sense of depth in a z-dimensional space
-chiaroscuro: dramatic contrast of light and dark (highlight and shadow)
-triangular compostition: moves eye around painting
-oil paint on canvas: gradation of color, layering of color (richness), sfumatd (translucent layers)

Renaissance Art
-Mona Lisa
-Leonardo da Vinci
-had all 4 characteristics of renaissance art

Renaissance art
-Sistine ceiling
-Michelangelo Bunorrati
-Vatican City, Rome
-Book of Genisis (Story of Creation)
-barrel vault

Renaissance Art
-Last Judgement
-Michelangelo Buonarroti
-Sistine Chapel behind alter
-Pope Julius II made Michelangelo paint pic on apse
-Michalangelo mad at Pope and Baggro (criticized him)=pic of them in hell

Renaissance Art
-Pieta ("Pity")
-Michaelangelo Buonarroti
-St. Peter's Cathedral (Vatican City, Rome)
-Mary(17) holding Jesus(33)dead
+age of Mary gives her innocence, spirtural purity
-Mary's face expresses acceptance of son's fate and sadness of loss
-Can feel the dead weight of Jesus's limp body
-Sculpture cast shadows like a real face
-triangular compostiion

Renaissance Art
-Michelangelo Buonarrotti
-Tomb of Pope Julius II
-Pope Julius II promised Michelangelo he could carve tomb statue if he painted Sistine Chapel
-statue appears real and powerful
-Moses is holding 10 commandments and has horns (sign of divine connection)

Renaissance Art
-The Last Supper
-Leonardo da Vinci
-Milan, Italy
-paint in fresco that didn't sink in because he tried a new mixture
-early example of linear perspective toward center of Jesus
-St John looks like female(Mary), but isn't

Renaissance Art
-Benois Madonna
-Leonardo da Vinci
-Mary(6) and Jesus(baby)
-Theme: purity, innocence
-Mary expression is playful

Renaissance Art
-The Virgin of the Rocks
-Leonardo da Vinci
-John the Baptist and Jesus (baby)
-Face is youthful
-landscape similar to Mona Lisa landscape

Renaissance Art
-Birth of Venus
-Sandro Botticelli
+made many allegories
+known for international Gothic style
-allegory of fertility, birth, new life
-lack of chiarscuro
-not perfectly symmetrical but pic still balanced

Renaissance Art
-La Primavera
-Sandro Botticelli
-allegory of spring
-right=carnal pleasure
-center=emotional love-Venus is idealized
-left=contemplation and spiritual
+Chastity looks to Mercury=contemplative life
-3 graces: beauty, pleasure, chasity

Renaissance Art
-Story of Nastagio degli Onesti (3rd episode)
-Sandro Botticelli
-tempra on panel
-Museo del Prado, Madrid
-momement of energy
-girl getting attacked by dogs
-man riding horse=lover who was rejected and cuts out her heart
-contrast of serentity (background) and energy

Renaissance Art
-druken orgery
-circular composition=add to chaos
-odalisque: nude reclining female
-blending=adds wine induced feeling

Renaissance Art
-Rape of Europa
-shows use of color
-triangular compostition

Reanissance Art
-1st free standing sculpture since Greek times
-used a single piece of bronze
-portrayed as girly=young
-"after the battle of Golith"
-Florintine battle gear worn by David b/c he was the symbol of Florence
+Milenos was saw as Golith
-David=strength, victory

Renaissance Art
-Feast of Herod
-Baptistry of Siena Cathedral (Baptismal Font)
-Flattened relief
-Made of bronze
-lots of depth b/c of perspectives
-romanesque architechture
-banquet going on

Renaissance Art
-St. George
-Patron St. of England
-St. George slew dragon
-He symbolizes courage and strength
-He has roman robes and stature

Renaissance Art
-School of Athens
-Raphael Sanzio
-Left=idealistic:Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo, Plato
-Right=empirical:Raphel, Aristotle
-Plato points up (World of Forms), holding book of Teamaus
-Aristotle pointing down (World of Experience), holding book of The Ethics

Renaissance Art
-Alba Madonna
-Raphael Sanzio
-known to paint lots of Madonnas
-Tondo:circular painting or sculpture
-John the Baptist, Jesus, Mary
-Chirascuro=ground, and shadows in dress and land
-Triangular compostion
-linear perspectives behind her head

Renaissance Architecture

-Church of San Lorenzo
-Flippo Brunelleschi
-brought back flavor of Rome
-classic, humanistic: cleanliness
-post and lintel in aisle's
-similar to Bascilica of Constantine
-Corinthian column, no fluting
-Roman coferring

Renaissance Architecture

-Pazzi Chapel
-Flippo Brunelleschi
-part of Santa Croce
-post and lintel
-pielasters=decorations inside

Renaissance Architecture
-Donato Bramante
-similar to temple of Cybele
-colonnade, doric column, rotundra

Renaissance Architecture
-Cloisters at Santa Maria della Pace
-Donato Bramante
-Cloisters part of monstery, used as a place to be quiet

Renasissance Architecture
-Santa Maria della Grazie
-Donato Bramante
-Western ideas and Byzantine (large central apse)
-Classic Renaissance Italian Design (windows)

Renaissance Art
-Isenheim Altarpiece
-Mathias Grunwald
-Triptych: 3 panal piece
-Central panel: crucification scene=1st to protray human suffering rather than divine suffering of Jesus
-Below panel: yellowish, rotting flesh
-side panels: st. Antony (miricales) and St. Sebation (cure)
-piece in hospital
+someone suffered more than you did
+pray to saints for own healing
-Open Doors
+Show story of Jesus life until resurrection
=image is sense of hope
-Open Door
+wooden figures
=show disastor to triumph

Renaissance Art
-Garden of Earthly Delights
-Hieronhymus Bosh
-Left: garden of edan and creation of Adam and Eve as well as fountain (symbolize nonbelivers and magicians)
-Center: garden of earthly delights is sexuality and false pleasures
-Right: hell represented as fruit being carnal pleasure, egg=sex, rat=falsehood, torment and music brings you to hell

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