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The process of assessing or estimating attributes (surveys, observations, clinical interviews, testing)
Subjective format
Relies mainly on the scorer's opinion.
Free choice or Free response
The person taking the test can respond in any manner they choose.
Forced Choice
The person is forced to make a choice out of the best possible answer
Difficulty Index
Indicates the number of people who answer the question correctly
Normative Test Format
Each item is independent of all other items
Ipsative Test Format
Each item is allowed to be compared to other items
Which test format can legitimately be compared to others who have taken the test?
Power Test
Designed to measure a person's knowledge of subject without a time limit
Speed Test
Test designed to measure how fast a person completes items...tend to be set up so that nobody finishes it
Spiral Test
The items get progressively harder
Cyclical Test
Questions go from easy ones to those which are more difficult in each section
Vertical Tests
Have versions for various age brackets or levels of education (a math achievement test for pre-schoolers and a version for middle school children)
Horizontal Tests
Measures various factors during the same testing procedure.
Does the test measure what it says it measures
Tells you how consistent a test measures an attribute
Content Validity
Does the test examine the behavior it is supposed to?
Construct Validity
Refers to a test's ability to measure a theoretical construct (intelligence, self esteem, depression, etc.)..Any trait you cannot directly measure or observe can be considered construct
Concurrent Validity
Deals with how well the test compares to other instruments that are intended for the same purpose
Predictive Validity
Reflects the tests ability to predict future behavior according to established criteria
Face Validity
The extent that test looks or appears to measure the intended attribute
True or False: A reliable test is not always valid?
True or False: A valid test is always reliable?
Test-Retest Reliability
Giving the same test to the same group of people two times and then correlate the scores
Alternate Forms or Parallel Forms
The same population is given alternate forms of the identical test.
Split-half Reliability
The individual takes the entire test as a whole and then the test is divided into halves (eg. even vs odd; or at random)
Frank Parsons
Associated with the beginning of the guidance movement
A developmental and educational process within a school system
Career Counseling
A therapeutic service for adults performed outside an educational setting
The time the client has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations
The total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure
Title VII Civil Rights Act 1972
States women would have equal opportunities and equal job pay
Trait-Factor Theory
Attempts to match the worker and the work environment (job factors)
Frank Parsons and Edmund Williamson are associated with which career counseling theory?
Trait-Factor Approach (Emphasizing individual differences, the choice of an occupation is a one-time process)
Edmund Williamson
Associated with Trait-Factor theory and instruments like the Minnesota Occupational Rating Scale
Anne Roe
Developed career theory based on a personality approach.The theory is primarily analytic.
Roe's two dimensional system of occupational classification
Fields and Levels
How many fields are there? Name them?
Eight occupational fields: service, business, contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and arts/entertainment
How many "levels" are there? Name them?
Six levels: Professional and managerial, semiprofessional/small buisness, skilled, unskilled, and semiskilled
Three basic parenting styles associated with Anne Roe?
Overprotective, avoidant, or acceptant. This leads to child to develop a personality which gravitates toward people or away from people
Refers to a given position or similar position within an organization
Refers to similar jobs via different people in different settings
Edwin Bordin
Felt career choices could be used to solve unconscious conflicts. A psychoanalyst approach to career theory.
A.A. Brill
Theorist working within psychoanalysis approach to career theory. He emphasized sublimation as means of career choice.
John Holland has how many personality orientations
6...realistic, artistic, conventional, investigative, entreprising, and social
Developmental Career Theorists
View career choice as an ongoing process rather than a single decision made at one point in time.
Ginzberg early 1950
Based on a small research sample they concluded that occupational choice takes place over a six to ten year period; the period is irreversible; and always has the quality of compromise.
Ginzberg 1972
Career choice process is open-ended and lifelong.
Donald Super
A developmental career theorist. Emphasizes the self-concept.
Super's theory emphasizes how many life stages?
Five: Growth; Exploration; Establishment; Maintenance; Decline
Life-Career Rainbow
The person can play a number of potential roles as they advance through the five stages unfolding over the life span.
Career Maturity
John Crites
Tiedman and O'Hara
Proposed a decision-making theory, which refers to periods of anticipation and implementation/adjustment
John Krumboltz
Social Learning approach to career choice based on the work of Albert Bandura.
Behavioristic Model of Career Development (Decision-Making Theory)
Krumboltz believed that decision making is a skill which can be learned. Krumboltz acknowledged the role of genetics and the environment but focused on what can be changed via learning.
Self Directed Search
A self administered and self scored interest inventory by John Holland
Occupational Outlook Handbook
Dictionary of Occupational Titles-lists more than 28,000 job titles and is the largest source available
DOT 9-digit coding system
1st three are occupational category.
Middle third are tasks in relation to data, people, and things.
Last third help alphabatize titles.
Occurs when a worker is engaged in a position which is below their skill level
Strong Interest Inventory (SCII)
Based on John Holland. Measures interests, not abilities of people. Test assumes that a person who is interested in a given subject will experience satisfaction in a job in which those working in the occupation have similar interests.
Scope of Practice
This suggests that counselors should only practive using techniques for which they have been trained.
Define standards of behaviors set forth by organizations.
Ethical Dilemmas
Most are related to confidentiality
Revealing information that is extremely damaging to a client's reputation.
Statement of Disclosure
Include the counselor's qualifications, office hours, billing policies, emergency procedures, therapy modality, and statement of confidentiality.
Privileged communication
Anything said to a counselor by a client will not need to be divulged outside the counseling setting. The client gets to choose what is offered to public inspection.
What situations is "Privileged Communication" not applicable?
Child abuse, neglect, or exploitation; Suicide or Homicide; Criminal intentions; Client's need for hospitalization; or when counselor is focus of malpractice suit
Aspirational Ethics
The individual adheres to the highest possible ethical standards
A Group
A membership that can be defined with some degree of unity and interaction and a shared purpose.
Jacob Moreno
The Father of Psychodrama. Also coined the term "GROUP THERAPY".
Which theorist's work has been classified as a preface to the group movement?
Alfred Adler; he actually engaged in group treatment during the early 1920's
Primary Groups
Stresses a healthy life-style or coping strategies which can reduce the occurance of a given dificulty. (E.g. a group which teaches birth control to prevent teen pregnancy)
Secondary Groups
A problem or disturbance is present but not usually severe. (E.g. a group that deals with grief or sshyness)
Tertiary Group
Deals with more individual difficulties that are more serious and longwithstanding.
Group Content
Refers to the material discussed in a group setting.
Group Process
Referes to what the group is discussing. Analyzing the communications and interactions.
Group Cohesiveness
Refers to forces which tend to bind group members together.
Group Guidance
Groups that work with issues mainly preventative. They do not deal with rediation of severe psychological pathology.
Group Psychopathology
May emphasize the role of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences.
Risky Shift Phenomenon
The behaviors of a group are less conservative than your typical individual behavior
The customs shared by a group which distinguish it from other groups. The values shared by a group that are learned from others in the group. Attitudes and beliefs which characterize members of a group.
Integrated Congruent Relationship
Pertains to perceived genuineness of group members. - Example: Suzie reaches out to Martha understanding her problem even though this has not happened to her personally.
Therapeutic Factors
The sole implementations of skills, techniques, and style that facilitate therapy
Nonspecific Factors
Changes in behavior that cant be measured
The form in which individuals of a group come together and express how they feel about one another. A diagram representing the pattern of relationships between individuals in a group
Separation Issues
Feeling that arise for some form of loss, being it death, divorce, relocation, separation. If group closure is poorly handled, members can be left with unresolved issues, without direction on how to bring these issues to closure
Structured Group
Group designed with a particular purpose or agenda in mind. Problem oriented and short-term.
Assertiveness Training
Figuratively speaking, learning to stand, without being pushed down, or pushing back. Assertiveness is not aggression. It does not have to be loud. Group setting can be a safe setting for practicing assertiveness
Meaning Attribution
Clarity of group input as well as output to explain change.Members can discover ways in which they have lost direction
Interpersonal learning
Learning via the group process
Art Therapy
using art to reveal the unconscious or to express emotions the client cannot otherwise areticulate
Transactional Analysis
A therapeutic approach by Bernes which focuses on the interactions of people. Relies on the Id,Ego, and the Super Ego. Theory of personality and an organized system of interactional therapy. We make current decisions based on past premises that were at one time appropriate for our survival
a goal, a value that provides a feeling of belonging and unity. Beginning building cohesion is the task of the first group session
Group Psychotherapy
A process of reeducation that includes both conscious and unconscious awareness and both the present and past. psychotheraperutic intervention in a group setting
Humanistic Therapy
Therapy that emphasizes the client. Emphasizes the relationship between client and therapist. Sees the quality of that relationship as sufficient in itself to effect change
Existential Issues
In existential therapy, the issues confronted are the meaning of life, freedom and responsibility, anxiety as a condition of life, isolation, death and nonbeing. Existentialism is predicated on the assumption tht we are free to choose and therefore we are responsible for our choices. This leads to anxiety, which can an impetus for change and growth. Existentialism notes that it is through our recognition of death that we find meaning in life.
helping members bridge common concerns for shared problems and/or solutions and connect the work that the members do.
Structured Exercise
Techniques used for achieving a particular goal in a set amount of time. Can enhance interaction and provide a focus for work or promote member independence on the leader.
release of accumulated emotions. Catharsis is used in gestalt therapy. One of the potential dangers of gestalt theapy involves catharsis. Sometimes an inexperienced therapist may lead a person to the point of catharsis, releasing intense emotion without knowing how to take the client from there.
Self Actualization
Becoming one with reality. Growth toward wholeness
Milieu Therapy
Type of treatment for socially and mentally disordered individuals, usually in an institution. Group counseling is typically the setting. Residential treatment, living the treatment
Family Constellation
How the family members are arranged in the perception of the family member
Groups that help people work on skills and abilities to help them interact and coexist with peers in particular settings.
Avoidance Conditioning
Type of Operant Conditioning in which an organism learns to avoid an unpleasant stimulus by engaging in a particular response
Describes theories of learning that emphasize the observable components of behavior.
Type of learning involving the association of responses such that each response acts as the stimulus for the following response.
Classical Conditioning
Learning that occurs as the result of the pairing of a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the confitioned stimulus eventually elicits the response normally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
Cognitive Maps
A mental representation of physical space
Conditioned Response
A response elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of classical conditioning.
Conditioned Stimulus
The previously neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning.
Eidetic Imagery
The ability to retain a visual image of a scene with extreme clarity and in extreme detail.
Fixed Interval Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement for a response occurs at a consistent interval of time, regardless of number of response
Fixed Ratio Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement for a response occurs after a fixed number of correct responses. (E.g., after every 10th response)
Gestalt Theory
Emphasizes organization and perception, with the view that stimuli are percieved as wholes rather than as separte parts.
Iconic Store Memory
The location in memory where visual stimuli (images) are stored.
The method of understanding internal processes by generalizing form individual reports of inner thoughts, feelings, etc.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs without manifestation in actual performance at the time it occurs.
Negative Reinforcement
The strengthening of a behavior or response resulting from the removal of an unpleasant stimulus following that behavior or response.
Practicing a behavior beyond the time required to learn it or after it has been mastered; is associated with increased long term recall and resistance to extinction.
Positive Reinforcement
Application of a reinforcer each time the organism emits the desired response; positive reinforcement results in an increase of the reinforced response.
The progressive alteration of responses toward a desired behavior through reinforcement of responses that becoming increasing similar to the desired behavior.
Stimulus Discrimination
Learning to respond with a conditioned response to only certain stimuli
Stimulus Genralization
Learning to respond to stimuli similar, but not identical, to the original stimulus.
Variable Interval Schedule
A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs after random or variable time intervals
Variable Ratio Schedule
A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs after a random or variable number or responses.
Alfred Adler(Father of Individual Psychology)work on Birth Order
Birth Order:
a. Firstborns- Go to great lengths to please their parents
b. Second Child- Will often try to compete with a firstborn and often surpasses the first child’s performance.
c. Middle Child- Will often feel that they are being treated unfairly. Sometimes seen as quite manipulative.
d. Youngest Child- Tend to be pampered or spoiled. Often excel by modeling/imitating the older children’s behavior.
Social Connectedness
People have a wish to belong.
Rudolph Dreikers
I. Was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice.
II. Also introduced Adlerian principles to the treatment of children in the school setting.
Conscious Mind
The mind is aware of the immediate environment
Unconscious Mind
Composed of material which is normally unknown or hidden from the client.
Preconscious Mind
Capable of bringing ideas, images, and thoughts into awareness with minimal difficulty. Can access information from the conscious as well as the unconscious.
An intellectual excuse to minimize hurt feelings
A person incorporates someone else’s values into their own thought patterns
Is the ability to repress an incident that was harmful to them. In later life, the repression that served to protect them can cause emotional problems
A person acts out an unconscious impulse in a socially acceptable way
Turing in of the libido. An individual is their own primary source of pleasure.
The tendency to find satisfaction and pleasure in other people. The extrovert seeks external rewards
Drawings balanced around a center point to analyze himself, clients, and dreams. Also can stand for a magic protective circle that represents self-unification.
Collective Unconscious
All humans have collected universal inherited unconscious neural patterns. This information is passed on from generation to generation.
Information that is passed from generation to generation in the collective unconscious. Consist of the Persona, Anima, Animus, Shadow
Arnold Lazarus
(Multimodal Approach)
B- Acts, habits, and reactions
A- Affective responses such as emotions, feelings, and mood
S- Sensations, including hearing, touch, sight, smell, and taste
I- Images of how we perceive ourselves
C- Cognitions such as our thought insights

I- Interpersonal relationships, how we interact with others
D- Drugs, that would include alcohol, legal, illegal, and prescription drugs
Henry Murray
I. Created the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
II. TAT is a projective test in which the client is shown a series of pictures and asked to tell a story.
III. Called the study of personality “personology
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)-
A measure used for elementary children to adults that yields a four letter code based on four bipolar scales.
a. Extroversion/Introversion
b. Sensing/Intuition
c. Thinking/Feeling
d. Judging/Perceiving
Symptom Substitution
A psychoanalytic term. If you merely deal with the symptom another symptom will manifest itself since the real problem is in the unconscious mind
Cognitive Dissonance
Humans will feel uncomfortable if they have two incompatible or inconsistent beliefs and thus the person will be motivated to reduce the dissonance
Negative Punishment
Takes place when a stimulus is removed following the behavior and the response decreases
Positive Punishment
Takes place when something is added after a behavior and the behavior decreases.
Delay Conditioning
When the CS is delayed until the US occurs.
Trace Conditioning
When the CS terminates before the occurrence of the US
Culture-Fair Test
Items are known to the subject regardless of their culture. Attempts to expunge items which would be known only to an individual due to their background
Crystallized Intelligence
experience & education; increased over time
Fluid Intelligence
Inherited neurological that decreases with age and is not very dependent on culture. Tested by what has been called content-free reasoning
Arthur Jensen
Sparked controversy in 1969 article that the closer people are genetically the more alike their IQ scores. Felt Whites had 11-15 point advantage over Blacks due to Blacks being breed for strength not intelligence.
Robert Williams-
Created BITCH (Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity) to demonstrate that Blacks often excelled when given a test laden with questions familiar to the Black community
Aptitude Test
Measures what the person’s potential is.
Achievement Test-
Measures what the person has learned
Standard Error of Measurement
Tells you how accurate or inaccurate a test score is. If a client decided to take the same test over and over and over again you could plot a distrubtion of scores
Public Law 93-380
Known as the Buckley Amendment, the person can view her record (including test data), view her daughter’s infant IQ given at preschool, and could demand a correction she discovered while reading a file.
True or False: A valid test is always reliable
Lewis Terman
Americanized the Binet test. He worked at Stanford University and that is how it became the Stanford-Binet.
Oscar Burros
Noted for his Mental Measurements Yearbook, which was the first major publication to review available tests.
Francis Galton
Felt intelligence was a single or so called unitary factor. Intelligence was normally distributed like height or weight and that it was primarily genetic
Item analysis
process for evaluating single test items for easiness and or difficulty levels, and whether the inem descrimiates the learners from the non-learners
Halo Effect
tendency to allow an overall impression of a person or one perticular character or trait to influence the total rating of that person
the degree to which one has achieved on a standardized test.

used primarily in education, designed to evaluate a person's current state of knowledge of skill - NCE
significance of differences between two or more groups of subjects, objects, or events that fall into defined categories by comparing observed frequencies with expected frequencies
The process of assessing or estimating attributes (surveys, observations, clinical interviews, testing)

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