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The Developing Person


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the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
Alzheimer's Disease
  • Characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally physical functioning.
  • Caused by a deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine
The emotional connection that infants and children develop toward their parents and others who care for them
Authoritarian Parenting
parents are highly controlling. They dictate how their children should behave. They stress obedience to authority and discourage discussion. They are demanding and directive
Authoritative Parenting
parents set limits and rely on natural consequences for children to learn from making their own mistakes
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
Concrete operational stage
from ages 7 to 11 (children begin to think logically about concrete events)
Conventional morality

by early adolescence; level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules because they are laws and rules

  • Gains approval/avoids disapproval
  • Does duty to society/avoids dishonor or guilt
Critical Period
a time span when a particular part of the brain is most apt to develop and most vulnerable to environmental influences
Critical Periods
  • Language
  • Attachment 
Crystallized Knowledge
Form of mental ability that includes material learned over the total life span and includes verbal ability, verbal reasoning, problem solving, and basic knowledge of one's world
Deprivation of attachment
  • Typically developing or affected
  • Behavioral Effects  
  • Physiological Effects
Developmental Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan
Disagreement with Piaget
  • Cognitive development is continuous and not broken into stages
  • Children more advanced than given credit for
Disruption of attachment
  • Depression
  • Emotional detachment
  • Return to normal living
Ego integrity versus despair
Fluid Intelligence
The part of intelligence which involves the use, as opposed to the acquisition, of information
when a person has made a commitment without attempting identity exploration
Formal Operational stage
after age 11 (development of abstract reasoning)
Gernerativity versus stagnation
occurs when there is neither an identity crisis or commitment
Identity Achievement
occurs when an individual has gone through an exploration of different identities and made a commitment to one
Identity versus role confusion
The process by which young individuals of a species acquire irreversible behavior patterns of that species
Industry versus inferiority
Initiative versus Guilt
the ability to form close, loving relationships
Intimacy versus isolation
Major problems of adolescents
  • Eating disorders
  • Teenage pregnancy
  • Dropping out of high school
Moral Thinking--3 basic levels
  1. Preconventional Morality
  2. Conventional Morality
  3. Postconventional Morality
the status of a person who is actively involved in exploring different identities, but has not made a commitment
Origins of Attachment
  • Body contact
  • Familiarity
  • Responsive parenting
Permissive Parenting
parents are accepting and warm but exert little control. They do not set limits, and allow children to set their own rules and schedules and activities
Physical changes in later adulthood
  • Women tend to live longer than men
  • Physiological changes
  • Neurological changes
  • Immunological changes
Physical changes in middle adulthood
  • For women – menopause
  • Men do not experience an equivalent to menopause; however, they do experience a decline in sperm count, testosterone level, speed of erection and ejaculation
Postconventional morality

Some who develop abstract reasoning of formal operational thought

  • Affirms agreed upon rights
  • Follows own basic ethics and principles
Preconventional Morality

before age nine; obey either to:

  • Avoid punishment
  • Gains rewards
Preoperational Stage
from ages 2 to 7 (acquisition of motor skills)
Primary Sex Characteristics
Sexual organs (penis and vagina)
Puberty landmarks
  • Females it is: Menarche
  • Males it is the first ejaculation
Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • Females – breasts and hips.  
  • Males – deepened voice and body hair
Self Concept
achieved by age 12 is a sense of one’s own identity and personal worth
Sensorimotor Stage
from birth to age 2 years (children experience the world through movement and senses and learn object permanence)
Separation Anxiety
When an infant or toddler is anxious about being away from her primary caregiver
Stranger anxiety
A dislike or mistrust of unfamiliar people, often beginning around a baby's eighth or ninth month
Agents that cause the malformation of a developing fetus
Trust versus mistrust
What drives development?
  • Maturation
  • Learning 
fertilized egg

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