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happ exam 2


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what proportion of us workers work in heath care
10 percent
what is the name of the physician who came on the mayflower
Samuel fuller
How were most physicians in early America trained?
What was the first medical school established in the colonies in 1756?
College of Philadelphia
What was the primary goal of the American Medical Association when it was founded in 1847?
To reform medical education
Who conducted the evaluation and published the report in 1910 “Medical education in the United States and Canada?”
Abraham Flexner
With what organization was he associated?
Carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching
What five criteria of the medical schools did he examine
1,entrance requirements 2,quality of labs 3,size of training facility 4,relationship with hospital, 5,availability of endowment
What were some of the outcomes of his report
smaller hospitals closed or merged with larger onces. 2,renew interest in licensing physicians 3,created and interest in giving endowments
What medical school did he point to as the model of medical education
John Hopkins
What are the four main parts or phases of medical education?
1,Pre medical phase 2,undergrad medical edu 3,grad medical edu or residency 4,post grad
When specialty medical practice became more prevalent, what did the specialists try to keep the general practitioner from doing?
Bringing patients in the hospital
In 1969, general practice became its own specialty called what
Family Practice
What is the definition of primary care physician
one who provides an individual or family with continuing health surveillance with needed acute or chronic care with referal services to specialist at appropriate
In addition to general practice and sometimes obstetrics/gynecology, what 3 type or kinds of physicians are considered primary care
1,internal medicine 2,pediatrics 3,family practice
At what governmental level are physicians licensed
State government
Who was the first woman to graduate from an American medical school?
Elizabeth Blackwell
Who was the first African-American female physician in the US?
Rebbecca Grumpleir
What is the name of the medical organization that was established to represent the interests of African-American physicians
National medical association
Who was the first African-American physician in the United States?
James Durham
Approximately what proportion/percentage of practicing physicians are women today?
20 or 28 percent
What is the definition of malpractice?
The faliure of one to render PROFESIONAL SERVICES to exercise the degree of SKILLS AND LEARNING applied under all circumstances in the comunity by the AVERAGE PRUDENT REPUTABLE member bof the profession with the result of injury loss or damage to the recipient and others that rely on him or hr
What are the five criteria or characteristics associated with a profession
1, education 2, licinsure and certification 3, profesional organization 4,peer review 5,code of ethics
What physician specialty is more likely then any other to be sued for malpractice
hat is the definition of defensive medicine?
The odering of a test or procedure that is maginal or no medical benefits primarily for medical legal risk
What are some of the things the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 did?
Made it more difficult for incompetent physicans to move from state to state.
What is the definition of informed consent
ensures that provider lets patients know of the risk involved in specific treatments and they have to give consent
What is the definition of practice guidelines
symetreically developed statements that assist prctioner and pts descusion about appropriate health care for specific linical circumstaces.
Under what federal agency is the Center for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (CQuIPS)?
he agency of health care research and quality
What did the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act signed by President Bush in 2005 do?
establish a procedure for the voluntary and confidential reporting of medical errors
What I the definition of nursing
the protection,promotion,and optimization of health and abilities precution of illness and injury alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response and advocacy in the care of individual families communities and population
How well are registered nurses represented among health care workers? In what health care setting do most work?
RN Make up the most largest health care ocupations 59 percent work in hospitals
What are the requirements to be licensed as a nurse?
Graduate from an approved nursing program pass a national licensing exam NCLEX RN
At what governmental level are nurses licensed? What is the Nurse Licensure Compact and how does it work
State Allow a nurse to have a licenses in their state of residence and to practice in other other state
There is little evidence that any organized group of women nurses existed before what era?
Because nursing and religion were so closely associated what historical period/event had an adverse affect on nursing?
Protestant reformation
Who is considered to be a leading figure in the development of organized nursing education in the late 1800s?
Florence Nightingale
What were the 3 aims of the school of nursing she influenced?
to train nurses in hospital work totrain nurses to work with the sick and poor train nurses to educate and prepare other nurses
What were the 3 important schools of nursing established in the U.S. in the 1870s that became the model for educating nurses for a long time?
Bellview hospital school New England Hospital fro womwn and children connecticut school of new heaven hospital
Upon what 2 ideals were the schools established?
the school must be considared an educational institution not a source of cheap labor for the hospital. school must be administered independently from hospital
Who is recognized as the trained nurse in the US
Linda Richards
Who was Isabel Hampton?
one of the founders of the john hopkins school of nursing in 1889
What was the most prevalent type of early formal nursing education
3 year diploma program or hospital school
What professional nursing association is responsible for accrediting nursing schools?
What professional nursing association focuses on nursing practice issues and continuing education?
American nurses association 1899
What are the 4 types of advanced practice nursing that were discussed in class? What is the education level for most advanced practice nursing programs?
Nurse practioner certified nurde midwife clinical nurese specialist certified anesthesiologist

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