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Acceptance Speech
A speech of thanks for an award, nomination, or other honor
Sensitivity to the feelings, needs, interests, and backgrounds of other people
ad hominem
an attack on irrelevant personal charateristics of the person who is proposing an idea, rather than on the idea itself
after-dinner speech
An entertaining speech, usually delivered in conjunction with a mealtime meeting or banquet
A written list or description of the items and issues that a group will discuss during a meeting
the repetition of a consonant sound (usually the first consanant) several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence
A comparison; also, a special type of inductive reasoning that compares one thing, person, or process with another to predict how something will preform or respond
examination of the causes, effects, and history of a problem to understand it better
the art and science of teaching adults
An illustration or a brief story
opposition, such as that used in two-part sentences whose parts have parallel structures but contrasting meaning
appeal to misplaced authority
use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentails or expertise
the production of clear and distinct speech sounds
focus on incoming information
a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably towards something' like or dislike
audience adaption
the process of ethicaly using information about an audience in order to adapt one's message so that it is clear and achieves the speaking objective
audience analysis
the process of examining information about those who are expected to listen to a speech
AutoContent Wizard
In PowerPoint, a feature that provides suggestions and ideas for the new presentation being created
bandwagan fallacy
Reasoning that suggests that beause everyone else believes something or is doing something, than it must be valid or correct
bar graoh
a graoh in which bars of various lengths represent information
behavioral objective
statement of the specific purpose of a speech, expressed in terms of desired audience behavior at the end of the speech
an individuals perception of what is true and false
blank presentation
in PowerPoint, a function that enables the user to create a slide design by choosing layout, colors, graphics, fonts, and organization of content
the central idea of a speech plus a preview of main ideas
a browser feature that allows a user to save a URL for future reference
Boolean search
an advanced Web-searching technique that allows the user to narrow a subject or jey work search by adding various requirements
boom microphone
a micrphone that is suspended from a bar and moved to follow the speaker; often used in tv
brief illustration
an unelaborated example, often only a sentence or two long
software that accesses web sites and web pages
casual fallacy
a faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
causal reasoning
reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads you to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others
cause-and effect organization
organization that focuses on a situation and its caused or a situation and its effects
central idea
a one-sentence summary of a speech
the visual and auditory means by which a message is transmitted from sender to recieve
a form of dynamism characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker
chronological organization
organization by time and sequence
the quality of a conclution that makes a speech "sound finished"
a verbal or nonverbal symbol for an idea or image
cognitive dissonance
the sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized throught patterns
commemorative address
A speech delivered during ceremonies held in memory of some past event and often the person or persons invloved
commencement address
a speech delivered at a graduation or commencement ceremony
an aspect of a speakers credibility that reflects whether the speaker is percieved as infomed, skilled, and knowledgeable
the logical outcome of a deductive arguement, which stems from the major premise and the minor premise
the meaning listeners associate with a word, based on past experiences
the support and commitment of all group members to the decition of the group
the environment or situation in which the speech occurs
an audience's perception of a speaker as competent, trustworthy, knowledgable and dynamic
standards for identifying an acceptable aolution to a problem
critical listening
evaluation the quality of information, ideas, and arguements put forth by a speaker
critical thinking
making judgements about the conclution presented in what you see, hear, and read
a learned system of knoledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that is shared by a group of people
a delivery of an already famous speech
to translate verbal or nonverbal smbols into ideas and images that sonstitute a message
deductive reasoning
reasoning that moves from a general statement or principle to a specific, certain conclusion
definition by classification
a "dictionary definition" consturcted by first placing a term in the general class to which is belongs and then differentiating it from all other members of that class
delivery outline
condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed
a speaker who gains control over others by using enethical emotional pleas and appeals to listener's prejudices
demographic audience analysis
analyzing an audience by examining demographic information so as to develop a clear and effective message
statistics on population characteristics such as age, sexual orientation, race, gener, educational level, and religious views
the literal meaning of the word
derived credibility
the perception of a speaker's credibility that an audience forms during the speech
the orderly organization and arrangement of ideas and illustrations in a speech
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is percieved as energetic
either/or fallacy
the oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only two outcomes or possibilities
elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion
the theory that listeners can be persuaded sirectly, by logic, reasoning, and evidence, or indirectly, by the overall emotional impact of the message
the expression of emotion through posture, movemt, gestures, facial expression, and voice
in a PowerPoint, the insertion of charts, pictures, equations, or other objects into a presentation
to translate ideas and images into verbal or nonverbal symobols
the beliefs, values, and moral principles by which people determine what is right or wrong
ethnic vernacular
a variety of english that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group
the portion of a person's cultural background that related to a national or religious heritage
the term Aristotle used to refer to a speaker's credibility
a speech to tribute to someone who has died
expert testimony
an opinion offered by someone who is an authority on the subject under discussion
extemporaneous speaking
speakin from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech
external noise
physical sounds that interfere with communication
false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguements that are irrelevent or inapproporiate
figurative analogy
a comparison between two essentially dissimilar things that share some feature on which the comparison depends
figurative of speech
language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid,and memorable
full-text database
an indexing system, available on the World Wide Web or on CD-ROM, the provides not only bibliographic data but also full texts of entries
general purpose
the overarching goal of a speech- to inform, to persuade, or to entertain
an all-encompassing statement
hard evidence
factual examples and statistics
hasty generalization
a conclustion reached without adequate evidence
hypothetical illustration
an example that might happen but that has no actually occured
a story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem the speaker is discussin
the degree of physical or psychological closeness between people
immediacy behaviors
nonverbal expressions of closeness to and liking for an audience, made through such means as physical approach or eye contact
inductive reasoning
reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion
a conclusion based on partial information or an evalutation that has not been directly observed
the variation of the pitch of the voice
initial credibility
the impression of a speaker's credibility that listeneers have before the speaker starts a speech
internal noise
anything physiological or psychological that interferes with communication
reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence
the specialized language of a profession
keynote address
a speech that sets the theme and tone for a meeting or confrence
lavalier microphone
a microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around the neck
lay testimony
an opinion or description offered by a nonexpert who has firsthand experence of something
listening styles
preffered ways of making sense out of spoken messages
literal analogy
a comparison between two similar things
literary quotation
an opinion or description by a writer, expressed in a memorable and often poetic way
a formal system of rules used to reach a conclusion
literally, "the word"; a term Aristotle used to refer to logic- the formal system of using rules to reach a conclusion
major premise
a general statement that is the first element of a syllogism
the mistaken use of a word that sounds like the intended word
manuscript speaking
reading a speech from a written text
use of geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
master view
in PowerPoint, a function that allows a user to view text or images that are to appear on every slide, notes on page, or handout
memorized speaking
delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
the content of the speech plus the way it was said
an implied comparison between two things or concepts
minor premise
a specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise; the second element of a syllogism
an internal force that drives people to achieve their goals
a belief based on the shared values, cultural heritage, and faith of a group of people
nomination speech
A speech that officailly recommends someone as a candidate for an office or position
non sequitur
Latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion
nonverbal communication
communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning
nonverbal-expectancy theory
a communication theory suggesting that if listeners' expectaions about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message
leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear
operational definition
a definition that explains how something works or what it does or that describes procedures for observing or measuring the concept being defined
oral citation
the oral presentation of such information about a source as the author, title, and year of publication
use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more clauses or sentences
term used by Aristotle to refer to appeals to emotion
the art and science o teaching children
the attribution of human qualities to inanimate things or ideas
the process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
highness and lowness of voice sounds
preconcieved opinoins, attitudes, and beliefs about a person, place, or thing
preliminary bibliography
a list of potential resources to be used in the preparation of a speech
preparation outline
a detailed outline that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material and that may also include a speech's specific purpose, introduction, blue-print, internal previews and summaries, transitions, and conclution
presentation aid
anything tangible (drawings, charts, graohs, video images, photographs, posters, music) that helps communicate an idea to an audience
presentation speech
the speech that accompanies the presentation of an award
arrangement of the ideas in a speech from the most to the least important
primary source
the origonal collector and interpreter of information or data
problem-and-solution organization
organization that focuses on a problem and various solutions and the problems it would solve
the proper use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately
a statement with which a speaker wants an audience to agree
proposition of fact
a proposision that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen
proposition of policy
a proposition that advocates a change in a policy, procedure, or behavior
proposition of value
a proposition that calls for a listener to judge the worh or importance of something
psychological audience analysis
analysing the attitudes, beliefs, values, and other psychological information about an audience in order to develop a clear an effective message
public relations speech
a speech designed to inform the public,to strengthen alliances with them and in some cases to recomment policy
a verbal device that used double meanings to create humor
a listener or an audience member
reciever apprehension
a fear of misunderstanding or misinterpreting the spoken messages of others
arrangement of the ideas in a speech from the least to the most important
red herring
irrelevant facts of information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
reflective thinking
a method of structuring a problem-solving discussion that involves (1) identifying and defining the problem (2) analyzing the problem (3) generating a possible solutions (4) selecting the best solution and (5) testing and implementing the solution
a word or phrase used uniquely by speakers in one part of the country
use of key words or phrase more than once for emphasis
the use of words and symbols to achieve a goal
rhetorical criticism
the process of using a method or standards to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of messages
rhetorical question
a question intended to provaoke thought, rather than elicit an answer
rhetorical strategies
methods and techniques used by speakers to achieve their goals
secondary source
an individual, organization, or publication that reports information or data gathered by another entity
the need to achieve one's highest potential
a verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker is moving from one idea to another
a comparison between two things that uses the word like or as
situational audience analysis
examining the time and place of a speech, the audience size, and the speaking occasion in order to develop a clear and effective message
small group communication
interation among from three to twelve people who share a common purpose, feel a sense of belonging tothe group and influence one another
social judgement theory
the theory that listener's responses to persuasive messages fall in the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of noncommitment
socioeconomic status
a person's precieved imporatanceand influence based on factors such as income, occupation and education
soft evidence
supporting material based on opinion or inference; includes hypothetical illustrations, description, explanations, definitions, anaologies, and opinions
spatial organization
arrangement of ideas in a speech according to location or position
specific purpose
a concise statement of what you want your listeners to know, feel, or be able to do when you finish speaking
speech act
a behavior, such as burning a flag, that is viewed by law as nonverbal communication and is subject to the same protections and limitations as verbal speech
speech of introduction
a speech that provides information about another speaker
speech to inform
a speech that shares information with others about ideas, concepts, principles, or processes in order to enhance their knowledge or understanding
a play on words involving the switching of the initial sounds of the words in a phrase
a collection of books in a library
standard outline form
numbered and lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among the parts of speech
stationary microphone
a microphone attached to the potium, sitting on a desk, or standing on the floor
withholding a key word or phrase until the end of the sentence
a three-part way of developing an arguement, using a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
target audience
a specific segment of an audience that you most want to influence
terminal credibility
the final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility, after the speech concludes
a list of words and their synonyms
topical organization
organization of the natural divisions in a central idea on the basis of recency, primacy, complexity, or the speakers prefrence
transformational leadership
the process of influencing others by building a shared vision of the future, inspiring others to achieve, developing high-quality individual relationships with others, and helping people see how what they do is related to a larger framework or system
an aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is percieved as believable and honest
a set of fonts that have characteristics in common
to assign meaning to the stimuli to which you attend
an enduring concept of right and wrong, good and bad
verbal irony
a statement that expresses the exact opposite of the intended meaning
a statement that concludes in an unexpected way

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